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Growing Public Social Spending and Economic Growth since the Eighteenth Century

ISBN-10: 0521529166
ISBN-13: 9780521529167
Edition: 2004
Authors: Peter H. Lindert
List price: $57.00 Buy it from $31.10
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Description: Peter Lindert inquires as to whether social policies that redistribute income impose constraints on economic growth. Although taxes and transfers have been debated for centuries, only recently have we been able to obtain a clear view of the  More...

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Book details

List price: $57.00
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 1/12/2004
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 396
Size: 5.75" wide x 8.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.188
Language: English

Peter Lindert inquires as to whether social policies that redistribute income impose constraints on economic growth. Although taxes and transfers have been debated for centuries, only recently have we been able to obtain a clear view of the evolution of social spending. Lindert argues that, contrary to the intuition of many economists and the ideology of many politicians, social spending has contributed to, rather than inhibited, economic growth. Peter Lindert is a prize-winning researcher and teacher at the University of California-Davis where he serves as President of the Economic History Association and as Co-Editor of its journal. His textbooks in international economics have been translated into at least eight other languages, and he has previously taught at the University of Essex, Harvard University, Moscow State University, and University of Wisconsin.

Peter H. Lindert is Professor of Economics at the University of California, Davis.

Preface to Volume 1
Overview
Patterns and Puzzles
Controversy
The Road from Here
Taxing, Spending, and Giving in the Late Eighteenth Century
Poor Relief, Public and Private
The Elderly
Public Education
The Long Rise of Social Spending
The Robin Hood Paradox
Is the Welfare State a Free Lunch?
An Educational Puzzle
Findings
Nine Conclusions
How Social Spending Emerged before World War II
Lessons from the Postwar Boom
Since 1980, Aging Has Brought New Budget Pressures
Unlocking the Free-Lunch Puzzle
How Welfare States Control the Disincentives
Early Retirement: A True, but Limited, Cost
The Pro-Growth Side of High Social Spending
Reconciling Europe's Unemployment with Its Satisfactory Growth
Two Cost-Cutting Principles in Democratic Welfare States
The Rise of Social Spending
Poor Relief before 1880
How Much Did Europe Give the Poor before 1880?
Private Charity in Early Modern Europe: A Miscellany of Pittances
The Amounts of Public Poor Relief to 1880
How Europe Gave Relief and for What
The Eternal Search for the Worthy and Unworthy Poor
The Battle over Putting the Poor to Work
Indoor versus Outdoor Relief
Administrative Costs
What They Gave: Cash versus Aid in Kind
Who Received It
Town versus Country
American Private and Public Relief before the New Deal
How Much Public Relief Was Given
Private Charity in the United States and the Crowding Out Issue
Two Attacks on Outdoor Relief in New York
Summary
Interpreting the Puzzles of Early Poor Relief
The Rise and Fall of England's Old Poor Law, 1780-1834
Who Supported England's Old Poor Law?
The Reform Acts, Voice, and the Poor
The Rural-Urban Puzzle
If England Were Invisible: The Urban Bias in Poor Relief
England's Rural Southeastern Bias and the Boyer Model
An Extension to Scandinavia
The International Stagnation of Relief, 1820-1880
The Predicted Effects of Extending the Franchise
The General Pre-1930 Pattern of Votes and Social Spending
Local versus Central Government: What Happened to the "Race to the Bottom?"
Summary: Political Voice and Poor Relief
The Rise of Mass Public Schooling before 1914
Overview
To Be Explained: Patterns in the Inputs into Mass Schooling
Competing Theories
Updating the Elite-Pressure Theories
Landlords and Toryism
Capitalist Social Control
Domineering Government
Dominant Religions
Vested Interests within the Educational Sector
The Role of Decentralization
Popular Votes, Public Schools
But What Caused Democracy?
Reverse Causation from Schooling to Democracy?
Religious Diversity and the Rise of Democracy and Schooling
Reinterpreting National Histories of Mass Schooling
France, the Baseline Case
The English Delay
Rethinking German Education
Decentralized North America
Summary: Elites, Votes, and Schools
Public Schooling in the Twentieth Century: What Happened to U.S. Leadership?
Who Are the Leaders?
In Years of Education
In Learning
International Test Scores at the End of the Twentieth Century
When Did This Pattern Emerge?
In Inputs into Education
Taxpayer Effort on Behalf of Education
Expenditures per Student
Teaching Inputs per Student
Teachers' Pay and Quality
Summing Up the United States' Symptoms
The Underlying Incentive Issues
Quantity Incentives versus Quality Incentives
Student Accountability
Competition among Schools
The Long Sweep of U.S. School Choice
Analyses of Local Experience with School Choice
Deviant California
Choice in Higher Education
Subsidized School Choice in Other Countries
Rewarding Individual Teacher Performance
Conclusions: Which Explanations Fit the Symptoms?
Explaining the Rise of Social Transfers Since 1880
Who Were the Pioneers before 1930?
Shared Fears from World Wars and the Great Depression
The Role of Political Voice
Democracies, Elite Democracies, and Full Democracies
Votes for Women
The Rate of Turnover of the Chief Executive
The Role of Aging: Gray Power?
Globalization and Safety Nets
Social Affinity: "That Could Be Me"
Summary
Prospects for Social Transfers
The Public Pension Crisis
In an Older World, Something Has to Give
Pressures in the OECD Countries
Who Is Most Threatened by Population Aging?
Who Is Least Prepared?
How Will Budgets Be Adjusted?
Immigrants and Pensioners
Returning to a Fully-Funded System Is Unlikely
Summary
Social Transfers in the Second and Third Worlds
The Aging Trend Is Nearly Global
Special Pressures in Transition Economies
Third World Social Transfers
Are They on a Different Path?
East Asia Is Not So Different
A Different Kind of Pension Crisis
Global Divergence, Convergence, and the Robin Hood Paradox
What Effects on Economic Growth?
Keys to the Free-Lunch Puzzle
The Familiar Cautionary Tales Miss the Mark
Disincentives on the Blackboard
Harold and Phyllis
Micro-Studies of Labor Supply
Simulations
Global Growth Econometrics
What Better Tests Show
How Can That Be True?
The Welfare-State Style of Taxing: Pro-Growth and Not So Progressive
Recipients' Work Incentives
The Poor May Face Lower Work Disincentives in the Welfare State
Early Retirement: Good Riddance to Old Lemons?
Does the Dole Also Harvest Lemons?
Some Growth Benefits of High Social Transfers
Active Labor Market Policies: Not Much There
Child Care Support and Career Investment in Mothers
Public Health Care
Why These Keys?
On the Well-Known Demise of the Swedish Welfare State
Who Proclaimed It and How
Sweden's Growth and Social Spending Since 1950
What Went Wrong after the 1970s?
Macroeconomic Policy
The Demise of Swedish Corporatism
What Role for Sweden's High Tax Rates?
What Survived: Pro-Growth Social Spending
Investing in Women's Work and in Child Care
Education and Retraining
Late Retirement
Conclusions: Why No Demise
How the Keys Were Made: Democracy and Cost Control
Democracy, Budget Size, and Budget Blunders
Big Budget, High Stakes
Illustrative Tax-Transfer Blunders
Dutch Disability Policy
Labour's Selective Employment Tax of 1966-1970
The Thatcher Poll Tax of 1989-1992
Universalism May Cost Less
On the Tax Side
The Expenditure Side
Hence No Retreat
Notes
Bibliography
Acknowledgments
Index

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