Tropical Ecosystems and Ecological Concepts

ISBN-10: 0521177340
ISBN-13: 9780521177344
Edition: 2nd 2012 (Revised)
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Book details

List price: $94.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 2/9/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 536
Size: 7.44" wide x 9.69" long x 0.94" tall
Weight: 2.684
Language: English

Preface
Abbreviations and units
The tropical environment and climate
The tropics
Tropical and temperate environments
Tropical climates
Global climate change
Biogeographical regions
Summary
Dry, hot deserts and environmental factors
Tropical deserts
The Sahara Desert and arid zones of northern Africa
The Namib Desert
Australian deserts
Environmental factors
Water"
Limiting factors and Liebig's law
Temperature
Salinity
Soils and nutrients
Environmental factors and plant and animal distributions
Desertification or land degradation?
Summary
Grasslands and primary production
Grass structure and biology
Neotropical grasslands
Light as an energy source
Carbon dioxide uptake by plants
Photosynthesis
Photorespiration
Photosynthetic strategies
Respiration
Environmental factors and photosynthesis
Primary production
Assessment of grassland primary production
Effects of rainfall, grazing and fire on grass growth
Primary production rates in terrestrial biomes
Summary
Savanna and population dynamics
Fire and savanna vegetation
Savannas of the world
The Serengeti
Savanna plants and heterogeneity
Animal population dynamics in the Serengeti
Herbivores and herbivory
Principles of population growth
Factors determining population density
Density-dependent mortality factors
Competition theory and the competitive exclusion principle
Predation
Density-independent mortality factors
Reproductive strategies and population growth
Population age structure and life tables
Key factor analysis
Conservation of African wildlife
Ecosystem dynamics and ecological models
Summary
Lakes, energy flow and biogeochemical cycling
Thermal stratification
Pelagic zone production
Littoral zone producers and primary production
The catchment area concept
Aquatic consumers
The biota of tropical and temperate lakes: a comparison
Food chains and energy flow
Food chain energetics
Trophic levels
Limited length of food chains
Food chain efficiencies
Food web dynamics and trophic cascades
Biogeochemical cycles
Quantitative aspects of nutrient supply and cycling
Eutrophication
Aquatic resource management
Summary
Rivers, floodplains and estuaries: the river continuum and flood-pulse concepts
Nile River
Purari River
Amazon River
Ecological concepts
Estuaries
Summary
Sudd-communities of Lake Naivasha
Rooted emergent swamps of Lake Chilwa
Freshwater herbaceous wetlands: structure and function
Swamp forests
Wetland succession
Ecological succession
Community development and assembly
Wetland loss and conservation
Summary
Tropical rain forests and biodiversity
How many species exist?
Biogeography of rainforests
Vegetation structure of tropical rain forests
Phenology and reproduction of tropical forest trees
Life-form concept of plants
Rain-forest animals
Convergent evolution
Plant-animal interactions
Co-evolution
Productivity and nutrient cycling in forests
Micro-climates and resource acquisition
Biological diversity
Why are rain forests so diverse?
Latitudinal gradients and species diversity
Gap theory
Processes maintaining local diversity
Tropical deciduous forests and ecotones
Low-diversity tropical rain forests
Deforestation
Rain-forest conservation and restoration
Biodiversity conservation
Mountains, zonation and community gradients
Environmental factors and altitude
Zonation on tropical mountains
Vegetation zonation on Mount Wilhelm, Papua New Guinea
Zonation in the Andes
Plant and animal ecophysiology: examples from Mount Kenya
Mountain zonation
Variation in plant and animal communities
Summary
Mangroves, seagrasses and decomposition
Mangrove biogeography
Mangroves of New Guinea
Ecological adaptations of mangroves
Mangrove animals
Mangrove productivity
Seagrasses
Coastal vegetation and organic matter export
Decomposition
Decomposition rates and environmental factors
Detritus food chains
Decomposition in other tropical systems
Coastal zone management
Summary
Coral reefs and community ecology
Coral reef communities
Coral biology
Coral reefs
Coral reef algae
Coral reef animals
Coral reef biogeography and biodiversity
Community ecology
Coral reef communities and phase shifts
Coral reef management and conservation
Summary
Islands, archipelagos, biogeography and evolutionary ecology
Krakatau
Dispersal
Colonisation and community assembly
Island biogeography
Natural selection and evolution
The Galapagos Archipelago
Speciation
The Hawaiian Archipelago
Extinction
Exotic species on islands
Community ecology and evolution
Summary
Cities and human ecology
Tropical cities
Evolution of human societies
World population growth
Food production
Industrialisation, natural resource use and pollution
Human population growth: consequences and solutions
Sustainable development
Conclusions
Summary
Glossary
References
Index

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