Operators and Promoters The Story of Molecular Biology and Its Creators

ISBN-10: 0520213319
ISBN-13: 9780520213319
Edition: 2001
List price: $85.00
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Description: During the past four decades, molecular biology has dominated the life sciences. Curiously, no participant in this scientific revolution has previously attempted a book-length history of the development of this powerful science. Harrison ("Hatch")  More...

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Book details

List price: $85.00
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: University of California Press
Publication date: 8/1/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 486
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.25" long x 1.75" tall
Weight: 4.180
Language: English

During the past four decades, molecular biology has dominated the life sciences. Curiously, no participant in this scientific revolution has previously attempted a book-length history of the development of this powerful science. Harrison ("Hatch") Echols provides such an account inOperators and Promoters.A gifted molecular biologist and talented raconteur, Echols relates the intellectual history of the most influential discoveries in molecular biology from his own experiences. Echols joins his vast knowledge of biology with personal interviews of the principal operators and promoters in the field to convey a captivating side of science--specifically, how the personalities of scientists and their competitive and collaborative relations affect new ideas and discoveries. The author reveals how logic and order often arise only in hindsight from the chaos of discovery; eventual solutions often come from experiments performed for entirely different reasons. Echols also shares his deep-seated feelings for the science itself, communicating his admiration, even awe, for the purity and simplicity with which life systems are organized. This gripping insider's account of the first fifty years of molecular biology ties together the biological questions with the scientific solutions of the people who established the field. It will appeal not only to students and those interested in the development of the discipline, but to anyone intrigued by the human side of science and the process of scientific inquiry and discovery.

Foreword
Preface
Beginnings: Simplicity and Elegance, DNA and Protein
Proteins
DNA
Simple Organisms
Further Reading
The Code for Life: DNA to Protein
Genes Code for Proteins
Defining the Coding Problem: The Information People
DNA to RNA to Protein: The Biochemical Pathway People
Cracking the Code: Synthetic mRNA
The Genetic Code: God Has an Orderly Mind
Further Reading
Turning Genes on and Off: Genes That Control Other Genes
Bacterial Growth and the Induced Synthesis of [beta]--galactosidase: The Monod Group
The Problem of Lysogeny and Phage [lambda]: The Jacob Group
Bacterial Sex and Erotic Induction
Turning Off Related Genes: The Road to the Repressor and the Operon
The Discovery of Messenger RNA
What Is the Repressor?
Some Comments on the Road to the Operon
Positive and Negative Regulation: Two Ways to Run an Operon
Multi-Operon Regulation: The Glucose Effect
Regulatory Diversity: Review and Preview
Further Reading
Replicating the Genome
DNA Polymerase Replicates DNA
The Problems of Replicating a Genome
The Genetics of Replication
The Fine Structure of DNA Replication
The "Real" Replication Enzyme Is Just Like Pol I
A Simple Task That Needs Many Proteins: Priming and Elongating
Special Proteins Needed for Genome Replication: Stretching, Unwinding, Untwisting
Replicating Duplex DNA
Starting Genome Replication: A Special Structure
Further Reading
Making RNA from DNA
The Flow of Biological Information
The Transcription Enzyme: RNA Polymerase
The Properties of mRNA
Developmental Pathways of Phage
Lambdology: The Developmental Biology of a Field
Lambdology: The Developmental Biology of a Phage
Lambdology as a Community
The Lac and [lambda] Repressors Bind to Operator DNA
The Biochemistry of RNA Polymerase
Positive and Negative Regulators of the lac Operon
The General View of Regulatory Proteins: 1972
The Idea of Antitermination Regulation: Problems in Paradise
Regulated Termination in the trp Operon: The Attenuator
Transcription Termination and How to Avoid It: [lambda] N and Q Proteins
The Regulator-Operator Interaction: How to Locate a Site on DNA
A New Approach to DNA Sequence and Its Recognition: Single-Cleavage Analysis
Determining DNA Sequence by DNA Replication
The Molecular Study of Protein-DNA Interactions
Building a Regulatory Protein: A DNA-Binding Motif
The Regulator-Polymerase Interaction: General Rules?
Further Reading
The RNA World: New Proteins and Revised RNAs
The Anticodon: Base-Pairs Can Wobble
Base Sequence of tRNA: A Three-Leaf Clover for Holley
Message Decoding: Methods and Protagonists
The Problem of Starting a Protein
Ending a Protein: The Value of Nonsense
Protein Translation Factors: Turning the Gears in Protein Synthesis
Using the Ribosome: GTP and Translocation
The Ribosome: The Many Faces of an Enigma
RNA Slicing in Bacteria
RNA Splicing in Eukaryotes
The Biochemistry of Splicing: Lariats on a Spliceosome
RNA Processing Without Proteins: Catalytic RNA
Further Reading
DNA on Its Own: Genetic Recombination
General Recombination and the Holliday Model
Holliday Intermediates in Cells
Genes and Enzymes in Bacterial Recombination
The RecA Protein and Branch Migration
The RecBCD Protein: Unwinding and Nicking
General Recombinational Pathways: The Future
Site-Specific Recombination and the Campbell Model
Prophage Excision and Excisive Recombination
The Biochemistry of Site-Specific Recombination
DNA-Protein Interactions in Site-Specific Recombination
Other Site-Specific Recombinases
Transposition and Replicative Site-Specific Recombination
The IS Insertion Elements
Mu: A Phage That Does Not Integrate Like Lambda
Identifying the Mu Components Needed for Transposition
A Unifying Model for Transposition
Transposition: Why Have It?
Further Reading
Regulating the Regulators: Developmental and Salvational Decisions
The Lysis-Lysogeny Decision by Phage [lambda]: cII as the Master Regulator
Regulating the Regulator: Control of cII Activity
Molecular Decision Making: Primary and Secondary Switches
Lifestyle Crises and Salvational Decisions
The Heat Shock Response and Molecular Chaperones
Heat Shock: From Cell Biology to Molecular Biology
Regulation and Function of Heat Shock Proteins in E. coli
Regulation of the Heat Shock Response: New Promoter Recognition by RNA Polymerase
Regulation of the Regulator: Post-Transcriptional Control of [sigma superscript 32]
The Heat Shock Response in Eukaryotic Cells
Regulated DNA Repair and Mutagenesis
The UVR Pathway of Excision Repair
RecA-Mediated Recombinational Repair
The SOS Response to DNA Damage
The Biochemistry of SOS Regulation: Induction by Repressor Cleavage
Induced Mutation in the SOS Response
Further Reading
Making DNA from RNA: The Strange Life of the Retrovirus
Quantitative Animal Virology: The Plaque and Focus Assays
Making DNA from RNA
The Path from Virus to Provirus and Back Again
The Wild Ride of Reverse Transcriptase
The Retrovirus and Its Cancer Gene
Retroviruses as Transposons
The HIV Retrovirus
Further Reading
Genetic Engineering: Genes and Proteins on Demand
The Social Context for Basic Research in Biology
A Biological Revolution from the Unpredictable
Hitchhiking Genes and Multiplying Vectors
Biological Roots: Phage with Bacterial Genes and Cohesive Sites
Biological Roots: Restriction Enzymes for Pieces of DNA
The Engineered Joining of DNA Molecules
DNA Cloning: Amplification of Foreign DNA by a Plasmid Vector
Safety Concerns and Regulatory Policy
Genetic Engineering: A Giant Leap for Eukaryotic Molecular Biology
The Industrial and Medical Ramifications of Genetic Engineering
Further Reading
Afterword
Timeline
Glossary
Notes
Name Index
Subject Index

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