Archaeology Theories, Methods and Practice

ISBN-10: 0500287139
ISBN-13: 9780500287132
Edition: 5th 2008
List price: $30.00
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Description: "Sets the new standard for excellence in this field."--"Antiquity" This best-selling textbook on what archaeologists do and how they do it has now been completely revised. Structured according to the key questions that archaeologists ask themselves,  More...

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Book details

List price: $30.00
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Thames & Hudson
Publication date: 5/17/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 656
Size: 7.50" wide x 8.75" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 3.278
Language: English

"Sets the new standard for excellence in this field."--"Antiquity" This best-selling textbook on what archaeologists do and how they do it has now been completely revised. Structured according to the key questions that archaeologists ask themselves, it provides coverage of all the major developments in methods, science, technology, and theory. For the fifth edition, the voices of indigenous archaeologists have been included, and there is updated coverage of archaeological ethics and Cultural Resource Management. Recent findings are discussed, and there is expanded coverage of topics such as bioarchaeology and geoarchaeology. 600! illustrations.

Preface to the College Edition
Introduction: The Nature and Aims of Archaeology
The Framework of Archaeology
The Searchers: The History of Archaeology
The Speculative Phase
The Beginnings of Modern Archaeology
Classification and Consolidation
A Turning Point in Archaeology
World Archaeology
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
Digging Pompeii: Past and Present
Evolution: Darwin's Great Idea
North American Archaeological Pioneers
The Development of Field Techniques
Women Pioneers of Archaeology
Processual Archaeology: Key Concepts
Interpretive or Postprocessual Archaeologies
Catalhoyuk: Interpretive Archaeologies in Action
Broadening the Frame
What is Left?: The Variety of the Evidence
Basic Categories of Archaeological Evidence
Formation Processes
Cultural Formation Processes - How People Have Affected What Survives in the Archaeological Record
Natural Formation Processes - How Nature Affects What Survives in the Archaeological Record
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
Experimental Archaeology
Wet Preservation: The Ozette Site
Dry Preservation: The Tomb of Tutankhamun
Cold Preservation 1: Mountain "Mummies"
Cold Preservation 2: The Iceman
Where?: Survey and Excavation of Sites and Features
Discovering Archaeological Sites and Features
Assessing the Layout of Sites and Features
Excavation
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project
Sampling Strategies
Archaeological Sites from the Air
GIS and the Giza Plateau
Tell Halula: Multi-period Surface Investigations
Geophysical Survey at Roman Wroxeter
Measuring Magnetism
Controlled Archaeological Test Site
Underwater Archaeology
Excavating the Red Bay Wreck
When?: Dating Methods and Chronology
Relative Dating
Stratigraphy
Typological Sequences
Genetic Dating
Linguistic Dating
Climate and Chronology
Absolute Dating
Calendars and Historical Chronologies
Annual Cycles: Varves and Tree-Rings
Radioactive Clocks
Trapped Electron Dating Methods
Calibrated Relative Methods
Chronological Correlations
World Chronology
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
The Maya Calendar
The Principles of Radioactive Decay
The Publication of Radiocarbon Results
How to Calibrate Radiocarbon Dates
Dating Our African Ancestors
Dating the Thera Eruption
Discovering the Variety of Human Experience
How Were Societies Organized?: Social Archaeology
Establishing the Nature and Scale of the Society
Further Sources of Information for Social Organization
Techniques of Study for Mobile Hunter-Gatherer Societies
Techniques of Study for Segmentary Societies
Techniques of Study for Chiefdoms and States
The Archaeology of the Individual and of Identity
The Emergence of Identity and Society
Investigating Gender and Childhood
The Molecular Genetics of Social Groups and Lineages
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
Settlement Patterns in Mesopotamia
Ancient Ethnicity and Language
Space and Density in Hunter-Gatherer Camps
Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis
Interpreting the Landscape of Early Wessex
Maya Territories
Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDSCAL)
Archaeological and Social Analysis at Moundville
Conflict and Warfare
Early Intermediate Period Peru: Gender Relations
What Was the Environment?: Environmental Archaeology
Investigating Environments on a Global Scale
Studying the Landscape: Geoarchaeology
Reconstructing the Plant Environment
Reconstructing the Animal Environment
Reconstructing the Human Environment
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
Sea and Ice Cores and Global Warming
El Nino Events
Cave Sediments
Pollen Analysis
Elands Bay Cave
Water Pollution in Ancient North America
Site Catchment Analysis
Mapping the Ancient Environment: Cahokia and GIS
Ancient Gardens at Kuk Swamp
What Did They Eat?: Subsistence and Diet
What Can Plant Foods Tell Us About Diet?
Information from Animal Resources
Investigating Diet, Seasonality, and Domestication from Animal Remains
How Were Animal Resources Exploited?
Assessing Diet from Human Remains
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
Paleoethnobotany: A Case Study
Butser Experimental Iron Age Farm
Investigating the Rise of Farming in Western Asia
Taphonomy
Quantifying Animal Bones
Bison Drive Sites
The Study of Animal Teeth
Farming Origins: A Case Study
Shell Midden Analysis
How Did They Make and Use Tools?: Technology
Unaltered Materials: Stone
Other Unaltered Materials
Synthetic Materials
Archaeometallurgy
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
Artifacts or "Geofacts" at Pedra Furada?
How Were Large Stones Raised?
Refitting and Microwear Studies at Rekem
Woodworking in the Somerset Levels
Metallographic Examination
Copper Production in Ancient Peru
Early Steelmaking: An Ethnoarchaeological Experiment
What Contact Did They Have?: Trade and Exchange
The Study of Interaction
Discovering the Sources of Traded Goods: Characterization
The Study of Distribution
The Study of Production
The Study of Consumption
Exchange and Interaction: The Complete System
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
Modes of Exchange
Materials of Prestige Value
Analyzing Artifact Composition
Lead Isotope Analysis
Trend Surface Analysis
Fall-off Analysis
Distribution: The Uluburun Wreck
Production: Greenstone Artifacts in Australia
Interaction Spheres: Hopewell
What Did They Think?: Cognitive Archaeology, Art, and Religion
Investigating How Human Symbolizing Faculties Evolved
Working with Symbols
From Written Source to Cognitive Map
Establishing Place: The Location of Memory
Measuring the World
Planning: Maps for the Future
Symbols of Organization and Power
Symbols for the Other World: The Archaeology of Religion
Depiction: Art and Representation
Mind and Material Engagement
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
Paleolithic Art
Clues to Early Thought
Maya Symbols of Power
The World's Oldest Sanctuary
Recognizing Cult Activity at Chavin
Identifying Individual Artists in Ancient Greece
Conventions of Representation in Egyptian Art
Sacrifice and Symbol in Mesoamerica
Cognition and Neuroscience
Who Were They? What Were They Like?: The Bioarchaeology of People
Identifying Physical Attributes
Assessing Human Abilities
Disease, Deformity, and Death
Assessing Nutrition
Population Studies
Diversity and Evolution
Questions of Identity
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
Spitalfields: Determining Biological Age at Death
Facial Reconstructions
Examining Bodies
Life and Death Among the Inuit
Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog
Genetics and Language Histories
Studying the Origins of New World and Australian Populations
Why Did Things Change?: Explanation in Archaeology
Migrationist and Diffusionist Explanations
The Processual Approach
Applications
The Form of Explanation: General or Particular
Attempts at Explanation: One Cause or Several?
Postprocessual or Interpretive Explanation
Cognitive Archaeology
Agency, Materiality, and Engagement
Summary
Further Reading
Box Features
Diffusionist Explanation Rejected: Great Zimbabwe
Molecular Genetics, Population Dynamics and Climate Change: Europe
The Origins of Farming: A Processual Explanation
Marxist Archaeology: Key Features
Language Families and Language Change
Origins of the State 1: Peru
Origins of the State 2: The Aegean, A Multivariate Approach
The Classic Maya Collapse
Explaining the European Megaliths
The Individual as an Agent of Change
The World of Archaeology
Archaeology in Action: Five Case Studies
The Oaxaca Projects: The Origins and Rise of the Zapotec State
The Calusa of Florida: A Complex Hunter-Gatherer Society
Research Among Hunter-Gatherers: Kakadu National Park, Australia
Khok Phanom Di: The Origins of Rice Farming in Southeast Asia
York and the Public Presentation of Archaeology
Further Reading
Whose Past?: Archaeology and the Public
The Meaning of the Past: The Archaeology of Identity
Archaeological Ethics
Who Owns the Past?
The Uses of the Past
Conservation and Destruction
Who Interprets and Presents the Past?
Archaeology and Public Understanding
Summary
Overview
Further Reading
Box Features
The Politics of Destruction: The Bamiyan Buddhas
The Fortunes of War
Applied Archaeology: Raised Fields in Peru
CRM in Practice: The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Project
Conservation in Mexico City: The Great Temple of the Aztecs
Destruction and Response: Mimbres
"Collectors Are the Real Looters"
Archaeology at the Fringe
Internet Archaeology
Glossary
Notes and Bibliography
Acknowledgments
Index

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