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Logic and Philosophy A Modern Introduction

ISBN-10: 0495601586
ISBN-13: 9780495601586
Edition: 11th 2010
List price: $197.95
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Book details

List price: $197.95
Edition: 11th
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 3/12/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 456
Size: 6.00" wide x 8.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.298
Language: English

Alan Hausman is Visiting Professor of Philosophy at City University of New York. He has published many articles relating to the subject of Descartes in the Canadian Journal of Philosophy and the History of Philosophy Quarterly among other journals.

Howard Kahane, April 19, 1928 - May 2, 2001 Howard Kahane was born on April 19, 1928 in Cleveland, Ohio. He received his bachelor's degree in 1954, and hid master's in 1958 from the University of California at Los Angeles. Kahane received his Ph. D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1962. After graduating, Kahane taught at Whitman College, the University of Kansas, American University and the University of Maryland at Baltimore. He then went on to teach philosophy at Baruch College in New York. In 1971 he published his most famous work, "Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric: The Use of Reason in Everyday Life," which has produced nine editions and is considered a handbook for philosophy teachers. In it, Kahane attempts to rid logic of its mathematical approach and make it a tool for assessing truthfulness. Howard Kahane died on May 2, 2001 in Mill Valley California after a heart attack. He was 73.

Preface to the Eleventh Edition
Preface to the Tenth Edition
Introduction
The Elements of an Argument
Deduction and Induction
Deductive Argument Forms
Truth and Validity
Soundness
Consistency
Contexts of Discovery and Justification
The Plan of This Book
Key Terms
Sentential Logic
Symbolizing in Sentential Logic
Atomic and Compound Sentences
Truth-Functions
Conjunctions
Non-Truth-Functional Connectives
Variables and Constants
Negations
Parentheses and Brackets
Use and Mention
Disjunctions
"Not Both" and "Neither . . . Nor"
Material Conditionals
Material Biconditionals
"Only If" and "Unless"
Symbolizing Complex Sentences
Alternative Sentential Logic Symbols
Key Terms
Truth Tables
Computing Truth-Values
Logical Form
Tautologies, Contradictions, and Contingent Sentences
Logical Equivalences
Truth Table Test of Validity
Truth Table Test of Consistency
Validity and Consistency
The Short Truth Table Test for Invalidity
The Short Truth Table Test for Consistency
A Method of Justification for the Truth Tables
Key Terms
Proofs
Argument Forms
The Method of Proof: Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens
Disjunctive Syllogism and Hypothetical Syllogism
Simplification and Conjunction
Addition and Constructive Dilemma
Principles of Strategy
Double Negation and DeMorgan's Theorem
Commutation, Association, and Distribution
Contraposition, Implication, and Exportation
Tautology and Equivalence
More Principles of Strategy
Common Errors in Problem Solving
Key Terms
Conditional and Indirect Proofs
Conditional Proofs
Indirect Proofs
Strategy Hints for Using CP and IP
Zero-Premise Deductions
Proving Premises Inconsistent
Adding Valid Argument Forms
An Alternative to Conditional Proof?
The Completeness and Soundness of Sentential Logic
Introduction and Elimination Rules
Key Terms
Sentential Logic Truth Trees
The Sentential Logic Truth Tree Method
The Truth Tree Rules
Details of Tree Construction
Normal Forms and Trees
Constructing Tree Rules for Any Function
Key Terms
Predicate Logic
Predicate Logic Symbolization
Individuals and Properties
Quantifiers and Free Variables
Universal Quantifiers
Existential Quantifiers
Basic Predicate Logic Symbolizations
The Square of Opposition
Common Pitfalls in Symbolizing with Quantifiers
Expansions
Symbolizing "Only," "None but," and "Unless"
Key Terms
Predicate Logic Semantics
Interpretations in Predicate Logic
Proving Invalidity
Using Expansions to Prove Invalidity
Consistency in Predicate Logic
Validity and Inconsistency in Predicate Logic
Key Terms
Predicate Logic Proofs
Proving Validity
The Four Quantifier Rules
The Five Main Restrictions
Precise Formulation of the Four Quantifier Rules
Mastering the Four Quantifier Rules
Quantifier Negation
Key Term
Relational Predicate Logic
Relational Predicates
Symbolizations Containing Overlapping Quantifiers
Expansions and Overlapping Quantifiers
Places and Times
Symbolizing "Someone," "Somewhere," "Sometime," and So On
Invalidity and Consistency in Relational Predicate Logic
Relational Predicate Logic Proofs
Strategy for Relational Predicate Logic Proofs
Theorems and Inconsistency in Predicate Logic
Predicate Logic Metatheory
A Simpler Set of Quantifier Rules
Rationale Behind the Precise Formulation of the Four Quantifier Rules
Cases Involving the Five Major Restrictions
One-to-One Correspondence Matters
Accidentally Bound Variables and Miscellaneous Cases
Predicate Logic Proofs with Flagged Constants
Predicate Logic Truth Trees
Introductory Remarks
General Features of the Method
Specific Examples of the Method
Some Advantages of the Trees
Example of an Invalid Argument with at Least One Open Path
Metatheoretic Results
Strategy and Accounting
Key Terms
Identity and Philosophical Problems of Symbolic Logic
Identity
Definite Descriptions
Properties of Relations
Higher-Order Logics
Limitations of Predicate Logic
Philosophical Problems
Logical Paradoxes
Key Terms
Syllogistic Logic
Categorical Propositions
Existential Import
The Square of Opposition
Conversion, Obversion, Contraposition
Syllogistic Logic - Not Assuming Existential Import
Venn Diagrams
Syllogisms
Determining Syllogism Validity
Venn Diagram Proofs of Validity or Invalidity
Five Rules for Determining Validity or Invalidity
Syllogistics Extended
Enthymemes
Sorites
Technical Restrictions and Limitations; Modern Logic and Syllogistic Logic Compared
Key Terms
Answers to Even-Numbered Exercise Items
Bibliography
Special Symbols
Index

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