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Introduction to Learning and Behavior

ISBN-10: 0495595284
ISBN-13: 9780495595281
Edition: 3rd 2009
List price: $243.95
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Description: Designed to apply learning theory and principles to the presentation of learning, this text shows how learning principles work in both animals and people. Throughout the book, the authors show how the study of learning helps solve practical  More...

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Book details

List price: $243.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 7/8/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 576
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.914
Language: English

Designed to apply learning theory and principles to the presentation of learning, this text shows how learning principles work in both animals and people. Throughout the book, the authors show how the study of learning helps solve practical problems, such as improving study skills, improving relationships, raising children, and effectively stopping smoking. This book is both solidly based in research and engaging for the student. To help ensure that students understand the materials, the authors strategically include multiple opportunities for review and self-testing within the text FACULTY One-Line Description: Emphasizes the basic principles of learning rather than theory. While striking an appropriate balance between basic research findings, many of which are derived from animal research and the application of those findings to important and interesting aspects of human behavior.

Dr. Russell Powell earned his Ph.D. in psychology under the late Frank Epling and David Pierce at the University of Alberta. Now serving as Chair of Psychology and Sociology at MacEwan University in Edmonton, Alberta, Dr. Powell was the first instructor to develop and offer university-level courses via computer-managed learning--a nontraditional, alternative delivery format. He has taught and published across a diverse range of areas, including social psychology, experimental psychology, operant conditioning, sleep paralysis nightmares and Freud criticism. Recently, Dr. Powell has become involved in the controversy over the nature and causes of dissociative identity disorder, coauthoring articles promoting a social learning perspective that have appeared in the CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY (Powell and Gee, 1999) and PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN (Lilienfeld et al., 1999).

Diane G. Symbaluk received her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Alberta and is currently a faculty member in the Department of Social Sciences at MacEwan University. Her research background includes the investigation of self-control and impulsiveness in sex offenders, activity anorexia in male athletes, and the effect of social modeling and self efficacy on pain perception and tolerance. Dr. Symnaluk is author of various teaching and study aids, as well as of various articles, two of which appeared in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (Symbaluk et al., 1997), and Teaching of Psychology (Symbaluk and Cameron, 1998).

Lynne Honey--a self-described "evolutionary behaviorist"--completed a Ph.D. in experimental psychology in Jeff Galef's lab at McMaster University, studying the role of social learning on alcohol consumption in rats. She has published a number of papers on this topic and considers social learning to be one of the most powerful adaptations available to our species and others. Dr. Honey joined the Department of Psychology at MacEwan University in 2003 because of its focus on teaching and student engagement. She currently conducts research on human social behavior in an evolutionary context, including studies of dominance, attraction, and cooperation.

Preface
About the Authors
Introduction
And Furthermore: Notation for Conditioning Diagrams
Historical Background
Aristotle: Empiricism and the Laws of Association
Descartes: Mind-Body Dualism and the Reflex
The British Empiricists
Structuralism: The Experimental Study of Human Consciousness
Functionalism: The Study of the Adaptive Mind
The Theory of Evolution: Humans as Animals
Behaviorism: The Study of Observable Behavior
And Furthermore: John B. Watson: Behaviorism's Controversial Founder
Five Schools of Behaviorism
Watson's Methodological Behaviorism
Hull's Neobehaviorism
And Furthermore: Deliberate Practice and Expert Performance
Tolman's Cognitive Behaviorism
And Furthermore: How to Read Graphs
Bandura's Social Learning Theory
Skinner's Radical Behaviorism
Advice for the Lovelorn
And Furthermore: The Life of B. F. Skinner
Summary
Suggested Readings
Study Questions
Concept Review
Chapter Test
Answers to Chapter Test
Research Methods
Basic Terms and Definitions
Independent and Dependent Variables
Functional Relationships
Stimulus and Response
Overt and Covert Behavior
Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli
Establishing Operations: Deprivation and Satiation
Contiguity and Contingency
Measurement of Behavior
Behavioral Definitions
Recording Methods
Research Designs
Descriptive Research
Experimental Research
Advice for the Lovelorn
Use of Animals in Behavioral Research
And Furthermore: Cruel Starvation or a Healthy Diet: The Ethics of Food Restriction
Summary
Suggested Readings
Study Questions
Concept Review
Chapter Test
Answers to Chapter Test
Elicited Behaviors and Classical Conditioning
Elicited Behaviors
Reflexes
Fixed Action Patterns
Simple Mechanisms of Learning
Habituation and Sensitization
Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion
Advice for the Lovelorn
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov's Discovery of Classical Conditioning
Basic Procedure and Definitions
Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning
And Furthermore: Classical Conditioning and Interpersonal Attraction
Excitatory and Inhibitory Conditioning
Temporal Arrangement of Stimuli
Summary
Suggested Readings
Study Questions
Concept Review
Chapter Test
Answers to Chapter Test
Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomena and Various Complexities
Some Basic Conditioning Phenomena
Acquisition
Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, and Disinhibition
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
Discrimination Training and Experimental Neurosis
Two Extensions to Classical Conditioning
Higher-Order Conditioning
And Furthermore: When Celebrities Misbehave
Sensory Preconditioning
Three Examples of Specificity in Classical Conditioning
Overshadowing
Blocking
Latent Inhibition
Advice for the Lovelorn
Additional Phenomena
Temporal Conditioning
Occasion Setting
External Inhibition
US Revaluation
Pseudoconditioning
Summary
Suggested Readings
Study Questions
Concept Review
Chapter Test
Answers to Chapter Test
Classical Conditioning: Underlying Processes and Practical Applications
Underlying Processes in Classical Conditioning
S-S Versus S-R Learning
Stimulus-Substitution Versus Preparatory-Response Theory
Compensatory-Response Model
And Furthermore: Conditioned Compensatory Responses and Drug Overdose
Rescorla-Wagner Theory
Advice for the Lovelorn
Practical Applications of Classical Conditioning
Understanding Phobias
And Furthermore: The Ethics of the Little Albert Experiment
Treating Phobias
And Furthermore: Was Sigmund Freud a Behavior Analyst?
Aversion Therapy for Eliminating Problem Behaviors
Medical Applications of Classical Conditioning
And Furthermore: Classical Conditioning, Gulf War Syndrome, and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Summary
Suggested Readings
Study Questions
Concept Review
Chapter Test
Answers to Chapter Test
Operant Conditioning: Introduction
Historical Background
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Skinner's Selection by Consequences
Operant Conditioning
Operant Behavior
Operant Consequences: Reinforcers and Punishers
Operant Antecedents: Discriminative Stimuli
Four Types of Contingencies
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Positive Punishment
Negative Punishment
And Furthermore: Four Types of Contingencies: Tricky Examples
Positive Reinforcement: Further Distinctions
Immediate Versus Delayed Reinforcement
Primary and Secondary Reinforcers
And Furthermore: Learned Industriousness
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcement
And Furthermore: Positive Reinforcement of Artistic Appreciation
Natural and Contrived Reinforcers
Shaping
Advice for the Lovelorn
And Furthermore: Training Ishmael
Summary
Suggested Readings
Study Questions
Concept Review
Chapter Test
Answers to Chapter Test
Schedules and Theories of Reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Versus Intermittent Schedules
Four Basic Intermittent Schedules
Other Simple Schedules of Reinforcement
Complex Schedules of Reinforcement
Theories of Reinforcement
Drive Reduction Theory
The Premack Principle
Response Deprivation Hypothesis
Behavioral Bliss Point Approach
Advice for the Lovelorn
Summary
Suggested Readings
Study Questions
Concept Review
Chapter Test
Answers to Chapter Test
Extinction and Stimulus Control
Extinction
Side Effects of Extinction
Advice for the Lovelorn
Resistance to Extinction
Spontaneous Recovery
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior
And Furthermore: Extinction of Bedtime Tantrums in Young Children
Stimulus Control
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
The Peak Shift Effect
Multiple Schedules and Behavioral Contrast
And Furthermore: St. Neots' Margin
Fading and Errorless Discrimination Learning
Stimulus Control Procedures for the Study of Memory
Stimulus Control: Additional Applications
And Furthermore: Edwin Guthrie: Stimulus Control for the Practical Person
Summary
Suggested Readings
Study Questions
Concept Review
Chapter Test
Answers to Chapter Test
Escape, Avoidance, and Punishment
Escape and Avoidance
Two-Process Theory of Avoidance
Avoidance Conditioning and Phobias
And Furthermore: Repression: Avoidance of Distressing Thoughts?
Avoidance Conditioning and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Punishment
Types of Punishment
Problems with the Use of Punishment
Benefits and the Effective Use of Punishment
Theories of Punishment
And Furthermore: Punishment and Procrastination
Effects of Noncontingent Punishment
Learned Helplessness
Masserman's Experimental Neurosis
Advice for the Lovelorn
And Furthermore: Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Behavioral Perspective
Summary
Suggested Readings
Study Questions
Concept Review
Chapter Test
Answers to Chapter Test
Choice, Matching, and Self-Control
Choice and Matching
Concurrent Schedules
The Matching Law
Deviations from Matching
And Furthermore: Basketball and the Matching Law
Matching and Melioration
Advice for the Lovelorn
Self-Control
Skinner on Self-Control
Self-Control as a Temporal Issue
And Furthermore: B. F. Skinner: The Master of Self-Control
Mischel's Delay of Gratification Paradigm
The Ainslie-Rachlin Model of Self-Control
The Small-But-Cumulative Effects Model
And Furthermore: But Why Do I Sometimes Just Give Up?
Summary
Suggested Readings
Study Questions
Concept Review
Chapter Test
Answers to Chapter Test
Biological Dispositions in Learning
Preparedness and Conditioning
Preparedness in Classical Conditioning
And Furthermore: Conditioned Food Preferences
Preparedness in Operant Conditioning
Operant-Respondent Interactions
Instinctive Drift
Sign Tracking
Advice for the Lovelorn
Adjunctive Behavior
Basic Procedure and Defining Characteristics
Adjunctive Behavior in Humans
And Furthermore: Extreme Polydipsia: Not Just a "Rat Thing"
Adjunctive Behavior as Displacement Activity
Activity Anorexia
Basic Procedure and Defining Characteristics
Comparisons With Anorexia Nervosa
Underlying Mechanisms

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