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Introduction and Descriptive Statistics | |

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Introduction to Statistics | |

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Preview | |

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Statistics, Science, and Observations | |

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Populations and Samples | |

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Data Structures, Research Methods, and Statistics | |

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Variables and Measurement | |

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Statistical Notation | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 1.1 and 1.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Frequency Distributions | |

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Preview | |

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Overview | |

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Frequency Distribution Tables | |

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Frequency Distribution Graphs | |

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The Shape of a Frequency Distribution | |

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Percentiles, Percentile Ranks, and Interpolation | |

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Stem and Leaf Displays | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 2.1 and 2.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Central Tendency | |

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Preview | |

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Overview | |

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The Mean | |

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The Median | |

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The Mode | |

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Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency | |

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Central Tendency and the Shape of the Distribution | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 3.1 and 3.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Variability | |

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Preview | |

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Overview | |

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The Range and Interquartile Range | |

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Standard Deviation and Variance for a Population | |

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Standard Deviation and Variance for Samples | |

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More about Variance and Standard Deviation | |

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Comparing Measures of Variability | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstration 4.1 | |

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Problems | |

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Foundations of Inferential Statistics | |

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z-Scores: Location of Scores and Standardized Distributions | |

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Preview | |

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Introduction to z-Scores | |

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z-Scores and Location in a Distribution | |

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Using z-Scores to Standardize a Distribution | |

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Other Standardized Distributions Based on z-Scores | |

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Computing z-Scores for Samples | |

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Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 5.1 and 5.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Probability | |

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Preview | |

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Introduction to Probability | |

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Probability and the Normal Distribution | |

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Probabilities and Proportions for Scores from a Normal Distribution | |

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Probability and the Binomial Distribution | |

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Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 6.1 and 6.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Probability and Samples: The Distribution of Sample Means | |

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Preview | |

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Overview | |

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The Distribution of Sample Means | |

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Probability and the Distribution of Sample Means | |

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More about Standard Error | |

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Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstration 7.1 | |

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Problems | |

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Inferences about Means and Mean Differences | |

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Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | |

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Preview | |

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The Logic of Hypothesis Testing | |

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Uncertainty and Errors in Hypothesis Testing | |

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An Example of a Hypothesis Test | |

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Directional (One-Tailed) Hypothesis Tests | |

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The General Elements of Hypothesis Testing: A Review | |

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Concerns about Hypothesis Testing: Measuring Effect Size | |

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Statistical Power | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 8.1 and 8.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Introduction to the t Statistic | |

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Preview | |

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The t Statistic-An Alternative to z | |

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Hypothesis Tests with the t Statistic | |

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Measuring Effect Size for the t Statistic | |

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Directional Hypotheses and One-Tailed Tests | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 9.1 and 9.2 | |

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Problems | |

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The t Test for Two Independent Samples | |

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Preview | |

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Overview | |

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The t Statistic for an Independent-Measures Research Design | |

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Hypothesis Tests and Effect Size with the Independent-Measures t Statistic | |

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Assumptions Underlying the Independent-Measures t Formula | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 10.1 and 10.2 | |

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Problems | |

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The t Test for Two Related Samples | |

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Preview | |

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Overview | |

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The t Statistic for Related Samples | |

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Hypothesis Tests and Effect Size for the Repeated-Measures Design | |

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Uses and Assumptions for Related-Samples t Tests | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 11.1 and 11.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Estimation | |

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Preview | |

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An Overview of Estimation | |

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Estimation with the t Statistic | |

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A Final Look at Estimation | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 12.1 and 12.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Introduction to Analysis of Variance | |

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Preview | |

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Introduction | |

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The Logic of Analysis of Variance | |

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ANOVA Notation and Formulas | |

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The Distribution of F-Ratios | |

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Examples of Hypothesis Testing and Effect Size with ANOVA | |

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Post Hoc Tests | |

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The Relationship Between ANOVA and t Tests | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 13.1 and 13.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | |

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Preview | |

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Overview | |

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Testing Hypotheses with the Repeated-Measures ANOVA | |

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Advantages of the Repeated-Measures Design | |

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Individual Differences and the Consistency of the Treatment Effects | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 14.1 and 14.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Two-Factor Analysis of Variance (Independent Measures) | |

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Preview | |

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Overview | |

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Main Effects and Interactions | |

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Notation and Formulas | |

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Interpreting the Results from a Two-Factor ANOVA | |

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Assumptions for the Two-Factor ANOVA | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 15.1 and 15.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Correlations and Nonparametric Tests | |

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Correlation | |

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Preview | |

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Overview | |

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The Pearson Correlation | |

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Understanding and Interpreting the Pearson Correlation | |

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Hypothesis Tests with the Pearson Correlation | |

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The Spearman Correlation | |

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Other Measures of Relationship | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 16.1 and 16.2 | |

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Problems | |

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Introduction to Regression | |

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Preview | |

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Introduction to Linear Equations and Regression | |

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Testing the Significance of the Regression Equation: Analysis of Regression | |

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Introduction to Multiple Regression with Two Predictor Variables | |

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Evaluating the Contribution of Each Predictor Variable | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 17.1 and 17.2 | |

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Problems | |

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The Chi-Square Statistic: Tests for Goodness of Fit and Independence | |

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Preview | |

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Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Tests | |

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The Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit | |

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The Chi-Square Test for Independence | |

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Measuring Effect Size for the Chi-Square Test for Independence | |

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Assumptions and Restrictions for Chi-Square Tests | |

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Special Applications of the Chi-Square Tests | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstration 18.1 | |

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Problems | |

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The Binomial Test | |

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Preview | |

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Overview | |

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The Binomial Test | |

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The Relationship Between Chi-Square and the Binomial Test | |

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The Sign Test | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstration 19.1 | |

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Problems | |

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Statistical Techniques for Ordinal Data: Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, Kruskal Wallis, and Friedman Tests | |

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Preview | |

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Data from an Ordinal Scale | |

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The Mann-Whitney U-Test: An Alternative to the Independent-Measures t Test | |

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The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test: An Alternative to the Repeated-Measures t Test | |

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The Kruskal-Wallis Test: An Alternative to the Independent-Measures ANOVA | |

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The Friedman Test: An Alternative to Repeated-Measures ANOVA | |

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Summary | |

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Focus on Problem Solving | |

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Demonstrations 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, and 20.4 | |

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Problems | |

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Basic Mathematics Review | |

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Symbols and Notation | |

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Proportions: Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages | |

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Negative Numbers | |

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Basic Algebra: Solving Equations | |

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Exponents and Square Roots | |

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Statistical Tables | |

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Solutions for Odd-Numbered Problems | |

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General Instructions for Using SPSS | |

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Statistics Organizer | |

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References | |

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Index | |