Learning and Behavior Active Learning Edition

ISBN-10: 0495032077

ISBN-13: 9780495032076

Edition: 5th 2006

Authors: Paul Chance
List price: $155.95
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Description: Now in a paperback format with a new, free workbook built right into the text! LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR looks at learning as an evolutionary mechanism. Chance's book is stimulating, interactive, and filled with high-interest queries and examples. Based on the theme that learning is a biological mechanism that aids survival, this book embraces a scientific approach to behavior but is written in a lucid, clear language. The workbook portion of the book requires students to design experiments to test certain questions raised in the textbook. It also asks the students to use graphs to illustrate and summarize key experimental findings. Other exercises require students to apply the material, some of which require a pet, a roommate or a willing friend to complete. Thought questions require students to synthesize the concepts that they find in the text.

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Book details

List price: $155.95
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Delmar Cengage Learning
Publication date: 8/8/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 688
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.036
Language: English

Paul Chance received his Ph.D. in Psychology from Utah State University. He started his career as a school teacher (grades 7-9), and has been an Adjunct Instructor at the California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo and at Salisbury University (Maryland). Formerly, he was Book Review Editor of PSYCHOLOGY TODAY magazine, a senior fellow of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, and a member of the Association for Science in Autism Treatment advisory board.

Introduction: Learning to Change
Natural Selection
BOX: The Face of Change
Reflexes
Fixed Action Patterns
General Behavior Traits
The Limits of Natural Selection
Learning: Evolved Modifiability
Nature and Nurture
BOX: The Superior Animal
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
The Study of Learning and Behavior
Learning Defined
Learning Means Change
What Changes Is Behavior
BOX: Defining Operations
What Changes Behavior Is Experience
Measuring Learning
Research Designs
Anecdotal Evidence
Case Studies
Descriptive Studies
Experimental Studies
Limitations of Experimental Research
Animal Research and Human Learning
Reasons for Animal Research
Objections to Animal Research
Questions About Learning
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
Pavlovian Conditioning
BOX: Ivan Pavlov: An Experimenter from Head to Foot
Basic Procedures
BOX: What's What in Pavlovian Conditioning?
Higher-Order Conditioning
Measuring Pavlovian Learning
Variables Affecting Pavlovian Conditioning
Pairing CS and US
BOX: Pavlovian Flowchart
CS-US Contingency
CS-US Contiguity
Stimulus Features
Prior Experience with CS and US
Number of CS-US Pairings
Intertrial Interval
Other Variables
Extinction of Conditional Responses
BOX: Edwin B. Twitmyer and What Might Have Been
Theories of Conditioning
Stimulus Substitution Theory
Preparatory Response Theory
BOX: Conditioning and Awareness
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
Pavlovian Applications
Fear
BOX: Thank You, Albert
BOX: What Rats Can Teach Us About Fear
Prejudice
Advertising
BOX: Bite Your Tongue!
The Paraphilias
Taste Aversions
BOX: Changing the Coyote's Menu
Immune Function
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
Operant Reinforcement
BOX: E. L. Thorndike: What the Occasion Demanded
Basic Procedures
BOX: B. F. Skinner: The Darwin of Behavior Science
Discrete Trial and Free Operant Procedures
Operant and Pavlovian Learning Compared
Primary and Secondary Reinforcers
Shaping and Chaining
BOX: Tips for Shapers
Variables Affecting Reinforcement
Contingency
Contiguity
Reinforcer Characteristics
Task Characteristics
Deprivation Level
BOX: Octopi Individuality
Other Variables
Extinction of Reinforced Behavior
Theories of Reinforcement
Hull's Drive-Reduction Theory
Relative Value Theory and the Premack Principle
Response Deprivation Theory
Theories of Avoidance
Two-Process Theory
One-Process Theory
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
Operant Punishment
Basic Procedures
BOX: Aversive Confusion: Positive Punishment and Negative Reinforcement Compared
Variables Affecting Punishment
Contingency
Contiguity
Punisher Intensity
Introductory Level of Punishment
Reinforcement of the Punished Behavior
Alternative Sources of Reinforcement
Deprivation Level
Other Variables
Theories of Punishment
Two-Process Theory
One-Process Theory
Problems with Punishment
Escape
Aggression
Apathy
Abuse
Imitation of the Punisher
Alternatives to Punishment
Response Prevention
Extinction
Differential Reinforcement
Noncontingent Reinforcement
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
Operant Applications
Animal Care and Training
BOX: Reinforcement Goes to the Dogs
Self-Awareness
BOX: The Shaping of Awareness
Self-Control
Verbal Behavior
BOX: Rewarding Lies
Insightful Problem Solving
Creativity
Superstition
BOX: Quick! Get Some Mud!
Learned Helplessness
Delusions and Hallucinations
Self-Injurious Behavior
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
Vicarious Learning
Basic Procedures
Vicarious Pavlovian Conditioning
Vicarious Operant Learning
Vicarious Learning Versus Imitation
Generalized Imitation
Variables Affecting Vicarious Learning
Consequences of the Model's Behavior
Consequences of the Observer's Behavior
Characteristics of the Model
BOX: Vicarious Learning and Human Nature
Observer's Age
Observer's Learning History
BOX: The Venus Effect or, How Can I Learn Anything When You Look at Me with Those Big Brown Eyes?
Other Variables
Theories of Vicarious Learning
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Miller-Dollard Reinforcement Theory
Applications of Vicarious Learning
Foraging
Crime and Television
Therapy for Phobia
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
Generalization, Discrimination, and Stimulus Control
Generalization
Generalization Gradients
Semantic Generalization
BOX: Generalized Therapy
Generalization Following Extinction and Punishment
Discrimination
Discrimination Training
BOX: Worlds Apart: Punks and Skinheads
BOX: Lessons from Lepers
Successive, Simultaneous, and MTS Procedures
Errorless Discrimination Training
Differential Outcomes Effect
Stimulus Control
BOX: Stimulus Control and Adaptation
Theories of Generalization and Discrimination
Pavlov's Theory
Spence's Theory
The Lashley-Wade Theory
Applications of Generalization and Discrimination
Concept Formation
Mental Rotation
Smoking Relapse
Experimental Neuroses
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
Schedules of Reinforcement
Simple Schedules
Continuous Reinforcement
Fixed Ratio Schedules
Variable Ratio Schedules
BOX: VR Harassment
Fixed Interval Schedules
Variable Interval Schedules
Other Simple Schedules
Stretching the Ratio
Extinction
Intermittent Reinforcement and the PRE
Discrimination Hypothesis
Frustration Hypothesis
Sequential Hypothesis
Response Unit Hypothesis
Complex Schedules
Choice and the Matching Law
BOX: Ghetto Choice
Applications of Schedules
Compulsive Gambling
Experimental Economics
Malingering
The Importance of Schedules Research
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
Forgetting
Defining Forgetting
Measuring Forgetting
BOX: The Myth of Permanent Memory
Variables in Forgetting
Degree of Learning
Prior Learning
Subsequent Learning
Context
BOX: Reminiscence and the State of Learning
Applied Research on Forgetting
Foraging
Eyewitness Testimony
Learning to Remember
BOX: Say All Fast Minute Each Day Shuffle
Overlearn
Use Mnemonics
Try a Mnemonic System
Use Context Cues
Use Prompts
BOX: The Man Who Couldn't Forget
A Final Word on Forgetting
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
The Limits of Learning
Physical Characteristics
Nonheritability of Learned Behavior
Heredity and Learning Ability
Neurological Damage and Learning
BOX: Recipe for Genius
Critical Periods
Preparedness and Learning
BOX: Learning and Humanity
Conclusion
Recommended Reading
Review Questions
Practice Quiz
Query Answers
Glossary
References
Author Index
Subject Index
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