General Chemistry (With General Chemistrynow)

ISBN-10: 0495011967
ISBN-13: 9780495011965
Edition: 8th 2007
List price: $387.95
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Description: The Eighth Edition of CHEMISTRY incorporates a strong molecular reasoning focus, amplified problem-solving exercises, and innovative technological resources. This kind of reasoning helps students think at the molecular level and make connections  More...

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Book details

List price: $387.95
Edition: 8th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Brooks/Cole
Publication date: 2/16/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 1168
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.25" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 5.588
Language: English

The Eighth Edition of CHEMISTRY incorporates a strong molecular reasoning focus, amplified problem-solving exercises, and innovative technological resources. This kind of reasoning helps students think at the molecular level and make connections between molecular structure and macroscopic properties. Molecular reasoning and visualization are emphasized via Molecular-Reasoning icons, chapter objectives, end-of-chapter problems, and new artwork, and are integrated into the accompanying technology, including OWL (online homework management system) and General ChemistryNow (student assessment program). As in previous editions, thermochemistry is covered mainly in one chapter (Chapter 15) and begins the second half of the course. However, to address the need for more material on thermochemistry earlier in the course, the text now includes information on bond energies in Chapter 7 on Chemical Bonding. The discussion of entropy in Chapter 15 has been expanded to include not only molecular disorder but also the concept of energy dispersal.

Ken Whitten is Professor Emeritus at the University of Georgia. Dr. Whitten received his A.B. at Berry College, M.S. at the University of Mississippi, and Ph.D. at the University of Illinois. He taught at Tulane, the University of Southwestern Louisiana, the Mississippi State College of Women, and the University of Alabama, before joining the UGA faculty as Assistant Professor and Coordinator of General Chemistry in 1967. He remained Coordinator of General Chemistry throughout his UGA career until his retirement in 1998. His numerous awards include the G. E. Philbrook Chemistry Teacher of the Year Award, the Outstanding Honor's Professor, the Franklin College Outstanding Teacher of the Year, the General Sandy Beaver Teaching Award, and a Senior Teaching Fellowship. An award was established in Dr. Whitten's honor in 1998 celebrating outstanding teaching assistants in UGA's department of chemistry.

George Stanley, Cyril & Tutta Vetter Alumni Professor at Louisiana State University, received his B.S. from the University of Rochester in 1975 and his Ph.D. from Texas A&M University in 1979. He has extensive research experience in inorganic chemistry. George has won numerous awards and accolades, both nationally and locally, including the NSF Special Creativity Award in 1994, the LSU University Excellence in Science Teaching Award in 1995, the LSU College of Basic Sciences Center for Excellence in Science Teaching each year since 1997, and the Baton Rouge-ACS Charles E. Coates Award in 1999. He recently was named 2005-06 TIAA-CREF Service Learning Fellow, due to his longtime commitment to service-learning programs at LSU.

Ray Davis is a University Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of Texas, Austin. He received his B.S. at the University of Kansas in 1960, his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1965, and was a Cancer Research Scientist at the Roswell Park Memorial Institute from 1964 to 1968. He is a well-decorated teacher, with awards including the Minnie Stevens Piper Professorship in 1992, the Jean Holloway Award in Chemistry Teaching in 1996, and (five times) the Outstanding Teacher Award given by campus freshman honor societies. He was an inaugural member of the University's Academy of Distinguished Teachers in 1995.

About the Authors
To the Instructor
To the Student
The Foundations of Chemistry
Matter and Energy
Chemistry-A Molecular View of Matter
States of Matter
Chemical and Physical Properties
Chemical and Physical Changes
Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements
Chemistry in Use: The Resources of the Ocean
Measurements in Chemistry
Units of Measurement
Use of Numbers
The Unit Factor Method (Dimensional Analysis)
Percentage
Density and Specific Gravity
Heat and Temperature
Heat Transfer and the Measurement of Heat
Key Terms
Exercises
Chemical Formulas and Composition Stoichiometry
Chemical Formulas
Ions and Ionic Compounds
Names and Formulas of Some Ionic Compounds
Atomic Weights
The Mole
Chemistry in Use: Avogadro's Number
Formula Weights, Molecular Weights, and Moles
Percent Composition and Formulas of Compounds
Chemistry in Use: Names of the Elements
Derivation of Formulas from Elemental Composition
Determination of Molecular Formulas
Some Other Interpretations of Chemical Formulas
Purity of Samples
Key Terms
Exercises
Chemical Equations and Reaction Stoichiometry
Chemical Equations
Calculations Based on Chemical Equations
The Limiting Reactant (Reagent) Concept
Percent Yields from Chemical Reactions
Sequential Reactions
Concentrations of Solutions
Dilution of Solutions
Using Solutions in Chemical Reactions
Key Terms
Exercises
Some Types of Chemical Reactions
The Periodic Table: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
Chemistry in Use: The Discovery of Phosphorus
Aqueous Solutions: An Introduction
Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
Oxidation Numbers
Naming Some Inorganic Compounds
Naming Binary Compounds
Naming Ternary Acids and Their Salts
Classifying Chemical Reactions
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: An Introduction
Combination Reactions
Decomposition Reactions
Displacement Reactions
Chemistry in Use: Troublesome Displacement Reactions
Metathesis Reactions
Gas-Formation Reactions
Summary of Reaction Types
Key Terms
Exercises
The Structure of Atoms
Subatomic Particles
Fundamental Particles
The Discovery of Electrons
Canal Rays and Protons
Rutherford and the Nuclear Atom
Atomic Number
Neutrons
Mass Number and Isotopes
Mass Spectrometry and Isotopic Abundance
Chemistry in Use: Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis
The Atomic Weight Scale and Atomic Weights
The Electronic Structures of Atoms
Electromagnetic Radiation
The Photoelectric Effect
Atomic Spectra and the Bohr Atom
Enrichment: The Bohr Theory and the Balmer-Rydberg Equation
The Wave Nature of the Electron
The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Atom
Enrichment: The Schrodinger Equation
Quantum Numbers
Atomic Orbitals
Electron Configurations
Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism
The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations
Key Terms
Exercises
Chemical Periodicity
More About the Periodic Table
Chemistry in Use: The Periodic Table
Chemistry in Use: Glenn Seaborg: A Human Side to the Modern Periodic Table
Periodic Properties of the Elements
Atomic Radii
Ionization Energy
Electron Affinity
Ionic Radii
Electronegativity
Chemical Reactions and Periodicity
Hydrogen and the Hydrides
Oxygen and the Oxides
Key Terms
Exercises
Chemical Bonding
Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms
Ionic Bonding
Formation of Ionic Compounds
Enrichment: Introduction to Energy Relationships in Ionic Bonding
Covalent Bonding
Formation of Covalent Bonds
Bond Lengths and Bond Energies
Lewis Formulas for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions
Writing Lewis Formulas: The Octet Rule
Formal Charges
Writing Lewis Formulas: Limitations of the Octet Rule
Resonance
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
Dipole Moments
The Continuous Range of Bonding Types
Key Terms
Exercises
Molecular Structure and Covalent Bonding Theories
A Preview of the Chapter
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
Polar Molecules: The Influence of Molecular Geometry
Valence Bond Theory
Molecular Shapes and Bonding
Linear Electronic Geometry: AB[subscript 2] Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB[subscript 3] Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB[subscript 4] Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB[subscript 3]U Species (One Lone Pair of Electrons on A)
Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB[subscript 2]U[subscript 2] Species (Two Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: ABU[subscript 3] Species (Three Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB[subscript 5], AB[subscript 4]U, AB[subscript 3]U[subscript 2] and AB[subscript 2]U[subscript 3]
Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB[subscript 6], AB[subscript 5]U, AB[subscript 4]U[subscript 2]
Compounds Containing Double Bonds
Compounds Containing Triple Bonds
A Summary of Electronic and Molecular Geometries
Key Terms
Exercises
Molecular Orbitals in Chemical Bonding
Molecular Orbitals
Molecular Orbital Energy Level Diagrams
Bond Order and Bond Stability
Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
Delocalization and the Shapes of Molecular Orbitals
Key Terms
Exercises
Reactions in Aqueous Solutions I: Acids, Bases, and Salts
Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases
The Arrhenius Theory
The Hydronium Ion (Hydrated Hydrogen Ion)
The Br[psi]nsted-Lowry Theory
The Autoionization of Water
Amphoterism
Strengths of Acids
Acid-Base Reactions in Aqueous Solutions
Chemistry in Use: Everyday Salts of Ternary Acids
Acidic Salts and Basic Salts
The Lewis Theory
The Preparation of Acids
Key Terms
Exercises
Reactions in Aqueous Solutions II: Calculations
Aqueous Acid-Base Reactions
Calculations Involving Molarity
Titrations
Calculations for Acid-Base Titrations
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Balancing Redox Equations
Adding H[superscript +], OH[superscript -], or H[subscript 2]O to Balance Oxygen or Hydrogen
Calculations for Redox Titrations
Key Terms
Exercises
Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases
Pressure
Chemistry in Use: The Greenhouse Effect
Boyle's Law: The Volume-Pressure Relationship
Charles's Law: The Volume-Temperature Relationship; The Absolute Temperature Scale
Standard Temperature and Pressure
The Combined Gas Law Equation
Avogadro's Law and the Standard Molar Volume
Summary of Gas Laws: The Ideal Gas Equation
Determination of Molecular Weights and Molecular Formulas of Gaseous Substances
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Mass-Volume Relationships in Reactions Involving Gases
The Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Enrichment: Kinetic-Molecular Theory, the Ideal Gas Equation, and Molecular Speeds
Diffusion and Effusion of Gases
Deviations from Ideal Gas Behavior
Key Terms
Exercises
Liquids and Solids
Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids
Intermolecular Attractions and Phase Changes
The Liquid State
Viscosity
Surface Tension
Capillary Action
Evaporation
Vapor Pressure
Boiling Points and Distillation
Heat Transfer Involving Liquids
Enrichment: The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
The Solid State
Melting Point
Heat Transfer Involving Solids
Sublimation and the Vapor Pressure of Solids
Phase Diagrams (P versus T)
Amorphous Solids and Crystalline Solids
Enrichment: X-Ray Diffraction
Structures of Crystals
Bonding in Solids
Band Theory of Metals
Chemistry in Use: Semiconductors
Key Terms
Exercises
Solutions
The Dissolution Process
Spontaneity of the Dissolution Process
Dissolution of Solids in Liquids
Dissolution of Liquids in Liquids (Miscibility)
Dissolution of Gases in Liquids
Rates of Dissolution and Saturation
Effect of Temperature on Solubility
Effect of Pressure on Solubility
Molality and Mole Fraction
Colligative Properties of Solutions
Lowering of Vapor Pressure and Raoult's Law
Fractional Distillation
Boiling Point Elevation
Freezing Point Depression
Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression or Boiling Point Elevation
Colligative Properties and Dissociation of Electrolytes
Osmotic Pressure
Colloids
Chemistry in Use: Water Purification and Hemodialysis
The Tyndall Effect
The Adsorption Phenomenon
Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids
Chemistry in Use: Why Does Red Wine Go with Red Meat?
Key Terms
Exercises
Chemical Thermodynamics
Heat Changes and Thermochemistry
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Some Thermodynamic Terms
Enthalpy Changes
Calorimetry
Thermochemical Equations
Standard States and Standard Enthalpy Changes
Standard Molar Enthalpies of Formation, [Delta]H[superscript o subscript f]
Hess's Law
Bond Energies
Changes in Internal Energy, [Delta]E
Relationship Between [Delta]H and [Delta]E
Spontaneity of Physical and Chemical Changes
The Two Aspects of Spontaneity
Dispersal of Energy and Matter
Entropy, S, and Entropy Change, [Delta]S
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Free Energy Change, [Delta]G, and Spontaneity
The Temperature Dependence of Spontaneity
Key Terms
Exercises
Chemical Kinetics
The Rate of a Reaction
Factors That Affect Reaction Rates
Nature of the Reactants
Concentrations of Reactants: The Rate-Law Expression
Concentration Versus Time: The Integrated Rate Equation
Enrichment: Calculus Derivation of Integrated Rate Equations
Enrichment: Using Integrated Rate Equations to Determine Reaction Order
Collision Theory of Reaction Rates
Transition State Theory
Reaction Mechanisms and the Rate-Law Expression
Temperature: The Arrhenius Equation
Catalysts
Chemistry in Use: Ozone
Key Terms
Exercises
Chemical Equilibrium
Basic Concepts
The Equilibrium Constant
Variation of K[subscript c] with the Form of the Balanced Equation
The Reaction Quotient
Uses of the Equilibrium Constant, K[subscript c]
Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Predictions
The Haber Process: A Commercial Application of Equilibrium
Disturbing a System at Equilibrium: Calculations
Partial Pressures and the Equilibrium Constant
Relationship Between K[subscript P] and K[subscript c]
Heterogeneous Equilibria
Relationship Between [Delta]G[superscript 0 subscript rxn] and the Equilibrium Constant
Evaluation of Equilibrium Constants at Different Temperatures
Key Terms
Exercises
Ionic Equilibria I: Acids and Bases
A Review of Strong Electrolytes
The Autoionization of Water
The pH and pOH Scales
Ionization Constants for Weak Monoprotic Acids and Bases
Polyprotic Acids
Solvolysis
Salts of Strong Bases and Strong Acids
Salts of Strong Bases and Weak Acids
Salts of Weak Bases and Strong Acids
Salts of Weak Bases and Weak Acids
Chemistry in Use: Taming Acids with Harmless Salts
Salts That Contain Small, Highly Charged Cations
Key Terms
Exercises
Ionic Equilibria II: Buffers and Titration Curves
The Common Ion Effect and Buffer Solutions
Buffering Action
Preparation of Buffer Solutions
Chemistry in Use: Fun with Carbonates
Acid-Base Indicators
Titration Curves
Strong Acid/Strong Base Titration Curves
Weak Acid/Strong Base Titration Curves
Weak Acid/Weak Base Titration Curves
Summary of Acid-Base Calculations
Key Terms
Exercises
Ionic Equilibria III: The Solubility Product Principle
Solubility Product Constants
Determination of Solubility Product Constants
Uses of Solubility Product Constants
Fractional Precipitation
Simultaneous Equilibria Involving Slightly Soluble Compounds
Dissolving Precipitates
Key Terms
Exercises
Electrochemistry
Electrical Conduction
Electrodes
Electrolytic Cells
The Electrolysis of Molten Sodium Chloride (The Downs Cell)
The Electrolysis of Aqueous Sodium Chloride
The Electrolysis of Aqueous Sodium Sulfate
Counting Electrons: Coulometry and Faraday's Law of Electrolysis
Commercial Applications of Electrolytic Cells
Voltaic or Galvanic Cells
The Construction of Simple Voltaic Cells
The Zinc-Copper Cell
Chemistry in Use: A Spectacular View of One Mole of Electrons
The Copper-Silver Cell
Standard Electrode Potentials
The Standard Hydrogen Electrode
The Zinc-SHE Cell
The Copper-SHE Cell
Standard Electrode Potentials
Uses of Standard Electrode Potentials
Standard Electrode Potentials for Other Half-Reactions
Corrosion
Corrosion Protection
Effect of Concentrations (or Partial Pressures) on Electrode Potentials
The Nernst Equation
Using Electrochemical Cells to Determine Concentrations
Enrichment: Concentration Cells
The Relationship of E[superscript 0 subscript cell] to [delta]G[superscript 0] and K
Primary Voltaic Cells
Dry Cells
Secondary Voltaic Cells
The Lead Storage Battery
The Nickel-Cadmium (Nicad) Cell
The Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell
Key Terms
Exercises
Metals I: Metallurgy
Metals
Occurrence of the Metals
Metallurgy
Pretreatment of Ores
Reduction to the Free Metals
Refining of Metals
Metallurgies of Specific Metals
Magnesium
Aluminum
Iron
Copper
Gold
Key Terms
Exercises
Metals II: Properties and Reactions
The Alkali Metals (Group 1A)
Group 1A Metals: Properties and Occurrence
Reactions of the Group 1A Metals
Chemistry in Use: Trace Elements and Life
Uses of Group 1A Metals and Their Compounds
The Alkaline Earth Metals (Group 2A)
Group 2A Metals: Properties and Occurrence
Reactions of the Group 2A Metals
Uses of Group 2A Metals and Their Compounds
The Post-Transition Metals
Group 3A: Periodic Trends
Chemistry in Use: The Most Valuable Metal in the World
The d-Transition Metals
General Properties
Oxidation States
Chromium Oxides, Oxyanions, and Hydroxides
Key Terms
Exercises
Some Nonmetals and Metalloids
The Noble Gases (Group 8A)
Occurrence, Uses, and Properties
Xenon Compounds
The Halogens (Group 7A)
Properties
Occurrence, Production, and Uses
Reactions of the Free Halogens
The Hydrogen Halides and Hydrohalic Acids
The Oxoacids (Ternary Acids) of the Halogens
Sulfur, Selenium, and Tellurium
Occurrence, Properties, and Uses
Reactions of Group 6A Elements
Hydrides of Group 6A Elements
Group 6A Oxides
Oxoacids of Sulfur
Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Occurrence of Nitrogen
Hydrogen Compounds of Nitrogen
Nitrogen Oxides
Chemistry in Use: Nitrogen Oxides and Photochemical Smog
Some Oxoacids of Nitrogen and Their Salts
Phosphorus
Silicon
Silicon and the Silicates
Key Terms
Exercises
Coordination Compounds
Coordination Compounds
Ammine Complexes
Important Terms
Nomenclature
Structures
Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
Structural (Constitutional) Isomers
Stereoisomers
Bonding in Coordination Compounds
Crystal Field Theory
Color and the Spectrochemical Series
Key Terms
Exercises
Nuclear Chemistry
The Nucleus
Neutron-Proton Ratio and Nuclear Stability
Nuclear Stability and Binding Energy
Radioactive Decay
Equations for Nuclear Reactions
Neutron-Rich Nuclei (Above the Band of Stability)
Neutron-Poor Nuclei (Below the Band of Stability)
Nuclei with Atomic Number Greater Than 83
Detection of Radiation
Rates of Decay and Half-Life
Decay Series
Uses of Radionuclides
Artificial Transmutations of Elements
Nuclear Fission
Nuclear Fission Reactors
Chemistry in Use: Managing Nuclear Wastes
Nuclear Fusion
Key Terms
Exercises
Organic Chemistry I: Formulas, Names, and Properties
Saturated Hydrocarbons
Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Naming Saturated Hydrocarbons
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Alkenes
Chemistry in Use: Petroleum
Alkynes
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Benzene
Chemistry in Use: Nanotechnology
Other Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons: A Summary
Functional Groups
Organic Halides
Alcohols and Phenols
Ethers
Aldehydes and Ketones
Amines
Carboxylic Acids
Chemistry in Use: The Chemistry of Artists' Pigments
Some Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids
Chemistry in Use: Butter, Margarine, and trans Fats
Summary of Functional Groups
Fundamental Classes of Organic Reactions
Substitution Reactions
Addition Reactions
Elimination Reactions
Polymerization Reactions
Key Terms
Exercises
Organic Chemistry II: Shapes, Selected Reactions, and Biopolymers
Shapes of Organic Molecules
Constitutional Isomers
Stereoisomers
Chemistry in Use: Developing More Environmentally Friendly Solvents
Conformations
Selected Reactions
Reactions of Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Chemistry in Use: Chemical Communication
Formation of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Hydrolysis of Esters
Biopolymers
Carbohydrates
Polypeptides and Proteins
Chemistry in Use: The Cells' Drinking Straws
Nucleic Acids
Key Terms
Exercises
Some Mathematical Operations
Electronic Configurations of the Atoms of the Elements
Common Units, Equivalences, and Conversion Factors
Physical Constants
Some Physical Constants for a Few Common Substances
Ionization Constants for Weak Acids at 25[degree]C
Ionization Constants for Weak Bases at 25[degree]C
Solubility Product Constants for Some Inorganic Compounds at 25[degree]C
Dissociation Constants for Some Complex Ions
Standard Reduction Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25[degree]C
Selected Thermodynamic Values at 298.15 K
Answers to Selected Even-Numbered Numerical Exercises
Index of Equations
Glossary/Index

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