Moral Philosophy Theories and Issues

ISBN-10: 0495007153

ISBN-13: 9780495007159

Edition: 4th 2007 (Revised)

Authors: Emmett Barcalow

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Description:

This core text in ethics devotes the first half to moral theory and the second half to contemporary moral issues. Designed for the beginning student with no background in philosophy, it is an understandable and engaging introduction to the range of theory and issues that are most pressing to today's students. First, an introductory chapter on moral reasoning provides a solid framework for evaluating and constructing moral arguments. Following that, one finds comprehensive coverage of all major ethical theories, including virtue ethics, natural law theory, divine command theory, and social contract theory. Finally, students get to see this theory in action amidst seven chapters devoted to important discussions in applied ethics.
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Book details

List price: $177.95
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 4/18/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 416
Size: 6.46" wide x 9.33" long x 0.59" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

Preface
Morality and Moral Reasoning
Introduction
Moral Judgments
Philosophical Questions about Moral Judgments
Kinds of Moral Judgment
Moral Judgments and Moral Reasons
Moral Arguments
All-Things-Considered Singular Moral Judgments
Absolute Moral Principles
Universality
Evaluating Moral Arguments
Nonmoral Claims Must Be True or Reasonable
Deductive Validity and Inductive Strength
Soundness and Cogency
The Concept of Moral Judgment
Impartiality and the Moral Point of View
Harm, Benefit, and Morality
Morality and Freedom
Moral Disagreement
Appealing to What "We" Agree On
Why Do People Disagree?
Morality and Law
Basic Moral Principles
Intuitionism
One or Many?
Basic Moral Principles Are Neither True Nor Justified?
Agreement on Basic Moral Principles
Duties to Ourselves?
Reflective Equilibrium
Exercises
Endnotes
Natural Law and Divine Commands
Introduction
Cloning and Genetic Engineering
Cosmetic Surgery
Same-Sex Marriage
Stoicism
Thomas Aquinas
Hobbes
Philippa Foot
The Divine Command Theory
Problems for the Divine Command Theory
Religion and a Meaningful Life
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Internet Resources
Endnotes
Realism, Nihilism, Subjectivism, and Relativism
Introduction
Moral Realism
Why Think That Moral Judgments Can Be True or False?
Moral Nihilism
Moral Subjectivism
Reasons Supporting Moral Subjectivism
Problems for Moral Subjectivism
Moral Relativism
Does Moral Disagreement Entail Moral Relativism?
Tolerance Is a Virtue
Shouldn't People Conform to the Moral Code of Their Society?
Relativism and Moral Inquiry
Conclusion
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Internet Resources
Endnotes
Psychological Egoism and Moral Egoism
Commonsense Morality
Psychological Egoism
Moral Egoism
Moral Egoism and the Common Good
The Meaning of a "Moral" Reason
Moral Egoism and Universality
Moral Egoism and Social Harmony
Modified Moral Egoism
Short-Term Versus Long-Term Self-Interest
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Internet Resources
Endnotes
Utilitarianism
Introduction
Act Utilitarianism
Objections to Act Utilitarianism
Act Utilitarianism Ignores the Distribution of Happiness
Act Utilitarianism Ignores Duties
Rule Utilitarianism
Advantages of Rule Utilitarianism
An Objection to Rule Utilitarianism
Problems for All Versions of Utilitarianism
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Internet Resources
Kantian Moral Theory
Introduction
Kant and the Good Will
Actions and Maxims
The Categorical Imperative
Universal Law Formulation
Maxims and Universal Laws
Inconsistencies in Willing That a Maxim Becomes a Universal Law
Duties Derived from the Categorical Imperative
The Categorical Imperative: "Respect for People" Formulation
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Internet Resource
Endnotes
Virtue and Vice
Introduction
The Dalai Lama
Which Are the Virtues, Which Are the Vices?
Aristotle on Virtue
Happiness/Eudaimonia
Flourishing
Virtue, Vice, and Flourishing
Virtues and Vices as Guides to Action
The Unity of Virtue
Compassion
Courage
Self-Control/Self-Discipline
Arrogance
Selfishness/Self-Absorption
Responsibility
Epicureans
Stoicism
Hobbes and Hume
The Seven Deadly Sins
Virtues as Dispositions to Obey Moral Rules
Virtue and Vice in Hinduism: Ahimsa
Virtue and Vice in Buddhism
The Dalai Lama
Character and Freedom
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Endnotes
Human Rights
Assaults on Human Dignity
"Untouchables" (Dalits) in India
Roma (Gypsies)
Child Farmworkers in the United States
Rights
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Foundation of the Declaration
Classification of Rights
The Meaning of a Right
Rights to Security from Very Serious Physical and Psychological Harm
Rights to Equal Protection and Equality Before the Law
Rights to Political Participation
Rights to Liberty or Freedom
John Stuart Mill and the Harm Principle
Feinberg: Four Possible Principles Legitimizing Coercion
The Harm Principle
The Offense Principle
Hard and Soft Paternalism
Legal Moralism
Seven Basic Freedoms
Welfare Rights
The Right to an Adequate Standard of Living
The Right to Employment
The Right to Just and Favorable Remuneration
The Right to Rest, Leisure, and Reasonable Working Hours
The Right to Education
Justifying Welfare Rights
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Internet Resources
Endnotes
Feminism and Sexual Equality
Patriarchy
First Wave Feminism in the United States
Second Wave Feminism in the United States
The Current State of Women in the United States
Women Outside the United States
Contemporary Feminist Theories: The Third Wave
Liberal Feminism
Reproductive Rights
Equal Opportunity, Care, and the Family
Sexual Harassment
The Ideal of Androgyny
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
Male Justice Versus Female Care Approaches to Moral Decision Making
Are Justice and Care Approaches Incompatible?
The Case of Killing the White Crow
The Case of the Moles and the Porcupine
Why Can't a Man Be More Like a Woman?
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Internet Resource
Endnotes
Morality and Sex
Introduction
Sex Without Marriage
Sex and Happiness
Moral Duties Within Sexual Relationships
The Double Standard
Pornography
Adultery
Prostitution
Homosexuality
Homosexuality and God's Law
Are Homosexual Acts Unnatural?
Does Homosexuality Threaten the Family?
Same-Sex Marriages
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Endnote
Life and Death Issues
Abortion
Roe v. Wade
Constitutionality and Morality
The Right-to-Life Position on Abortion
The Most Liberal View on Abortion
Personhood
Voluntariness
Moderate Positions on Abortion
Stage of Development
Reasons for Wanting an Abortion
Infertility Treatments
Sex Selection
Applying Moral Theories to Abortion
Should Abortion Be Legally Permitted?
Public Funding of Abortion
Suicide
Suicide in Ancient Greece and Rome
Suicide and Religion
Suicide and the Possibility of Error
Suicide and Autonomy
Good Reasons for Committing Suicide
Bad Reasons for Committing Suicide
Suicide and the Duty to Minimize Harm to Others
Suicide and Moral Theory
Rights, Duties, and Suicide Preventions
Euthanasia
Impaired Newborns
Irreversible Comas
End-of-Life Cases
Active and Passive Euthanasia
Extraordinary Treatment and Extraordinary Care
Voluntary, Nonvoluntary, and Involuntary Euthanasia
Involuntary Euthanasia
Voluntary Passive Euthanasia
Voluntary Active Euthanasia
Nonvoluntary Passive Euthanasia
Nonvoluntary Active Euthanasia
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Endnotes
Economic Inequality, Poverty, and Equal Opportunity
Introduction
Is Too Much Economic Inequality Morally Wrong?
The Case for Equality
Arguments Against Equality
Is Poverty in the Midst of Affluence Morally Wrong?
Arguments for Relieving Poverty
Equal Opportunity
Justice, Fairness, and Taxes
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Internet Resources
Endnotes
Racism and Affirmative Action
Introduction
Racism and Blacks
Solutions to Racism
Prohibit Discrimination
Affirmative Action and Preferential Treatment
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Endnotes
Capital Punishment
Introduction
Social Protection
Deterrence
The Probability of Executing the Innocent
Discrimination Based on Race and Class
Utilitarian Justifications May Legitimize Punishing the Innocent
Desert
Competence: Age, Mental Health, and Intelligence
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Internet Resource
Endnotes
War and Peace
Introduction
Peace
Pacifism
Mohandas K. Gandhi
The Just War Tradition
Declaration by Competent Authority
Just Cause, Self-Defense, and Aggression
Proving Strength and Determination
Preemption
Revolution and Civil War
Humanitarian Intervention
Other Conditions of a Just War
Justice in Waging War
Justice in the Aftermath of War
Unconventional Weapons
Deterrence
Torture and Interrogation
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Endnotes
Ethics and the Environment
Introduction
Environmental Threats
The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
Ozone Depletion
Air Pollution
Water Pollution
Energy Consumption
Deforestation and Species Loss
Wilderness Preservation
Human Population Growth
International Declarations and Agreements on the Environment
1972 Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment
The 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
Creating a Sustainable Society
Opposition to Sustainability
Applying Moral Theories
Present Versus Future People
Environmental Racism and Justice
Life-Centered Versus Human-Centered Environmental Ethics
Exercises
Suggested Readings
Internet Resources
Endnotes
Moral Desicison Making
Thinking About Case Studies
Case Studies
McWane, Inc.
Death and Tobacco
Allegations of Unethical Pharmaceutical Studies in Nigeria
Terrorism, Interrogation, and Torture
Insurance Fraud
Police Brutality in New York City
Prosecutor Withholds Evidence from the Defense
Florida Ban on Gay Adoptions
Tainted Evidence?
The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
Embryonic Stem Cell Research
Nancy Cruzan
The Philadelphia Head-Injury Studies on Primates
Index
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