Logic Book Fundamentals of Reasoning

ISBN-10: 0495006726

ISBN-13: 9780495006725

Edition: 5th 2007 (Revised)

List price: $196.95 Buy it from $32.12
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Description: Unwavering in its fundamental commitment to today's students and their typical inexperience in rigorous logical analysis, Robert Johnson's A LOGIC BOOK is unparalleled in its ability to make logic simple, if not entertaining. After two chapters on basic concepts?argument, deductive validity, inductive strength, truth of premises?the text presents two different deductive systems, Categorical Logic and Truth-Functional Logic. A chapter on Formal Deduction is then followed by chapters on Inductive Logic and Informal Fallacies. The book culminates in a clear presentation of a strategy for evaluating lengthy arguments. Filled with timely examples and exercises drawn from popular culture, this book is an invitation to logic for even the most apprehensive students.

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Book details

List price: $196.95
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 4/11/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 352
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

Preface
Logic and Argument
Logic Defined
Argument Defined
Argument Form
Diagramming Arguments
Summary
Diagramming Arguments
Supplying Missing Parts: Enthymemes
Enthymemes: Missing Premises and Conclusions
Recognizing Real Arguments
Interpretation and the Principle of Charity
Recognizing Real Arguments
Composing Arguments
Summary
Review Questions
True or False?
Discussion Questions
Good Argument, Deductive Validity, and Inductive Strength
Good Arguments
The Definition of a Good Argument
Does the Conclusion Follow? Deductive Validity and Inductive Strength
Deductive Validity Defined
Deductive Validity: Does the Conclusion Follow Necessarily?
Inductive Strength: Does the Conclusion Follow Probably?
Validity and Logical Form
Validity and Logical Form
More Logical Form
Are the Premises True?
Empirical and Nonempirical Statements
Empirical or Nonempirical?
Truth, Validity, and Good Argument
What, if Anything, Is Wrong with This Argument?
Summary
Review Questions
True or False?
Discussion Questions
Categorical Logic Part I
Introduction
Categories and Reasoning
The Four Categorical Forms
Categorical Forms
Change the Quality
Change the Quantity
Venn Diagrams
Diagramming with Two Categories
Drawing Venn Diagrams
Reading Venn Diagrams
Recognizing Simple Inferences
Recognizing Simple Inferences
The Squares of Opposition
Inferences on the Traditional Square of Opposition
More Inferences
Quick Check on the Square
The Modern Square of Opposition
The Rationale Behind the Modern Interpretation
Inferences on the Modern Square of Opposition
The Operations
Conversion: Switch Subject and Predicate Terms
Obversion: Change the Quality and Negate the Predicate
Contraposition: Switch Subject and Predicate, Then Negate Both
Examples of Inferences
Operations
What Operation?
Valid or Invalid?
Simplifying with Operations
Review Questions
True or False?
Discussion Questions
Categorical Logic Part II
Translating into Categorical Form
Translating Guide
Translating
Translating
The Categorical Syllogism
Testing Validity with Venn Diagrams
The Bar
Making an Existential Assumption
Diagramming with Three Circles
Reading Venn Diagrams
Testing Validity with Venn Diagrams
Special Cases for the Syllogism
Valid or Invalid?
Sorites
Summary
Review Questions
True or False?
Discussion Questions
Truth-Functional Logic Part I
Introduction
Statements and Operators
The Logical Operators Defined
The Symbols and Their Uses
Symbolic Translation
Symbolic Translation
Grouping and the Scope of Operators
Symbolizing with Parentheses and Brackets
Translating and Grouping
Special Cases for Translation
Variations on the Conjunction and Disjunction
Variations on the Conditional
More Symbolic Translations
The Truth-Functions
Constructing Truth Tables
Truth Tables for the Operators
The Truth-Values of Compounds
Translating and Truth Tables
Interpreting Symbolic Statements
Review Questions
True or False?
Discussion Questions
Truth-Functional Logic Part II
Truth Tables for Evaluating Arguments
The Truth Table Method
Indirect Truth Tables
Indirect Truth Table Method
Statements and Relations
Types of Statements: Tautologies, Self-contradictions, and Contingencies
Types of Relations: Equivalences and Contradictories
Tautologies, Self-Contradictions, and Contingencies
Equivalences and Contradictories
Summary
Review Questions
True or False?
Discussion Questions
Formal Deduction
Introduction
The Rules of Inference: Group I
The Validity of Rules of Inference, Group I
Deductions with the Rules of Inference, Group I
The Rules of Inference: Group II
The Validity of Rules of Inference, Group II
Complete the Deductions
Rules of Inference
Equivalences
Equivalences and Rules of Inference
More Deductions
Symbolize and Deduce
Review Questions
True or False?
Inductive Logic
Inductive Strength
Inductive Generalization
Summary: Inductive Generalization
Inductive Generalization
More Inductive Generalizations
Causal Arguments
What Is a Causal Statement?
What Does It Mean to Say That One Thing Causes Another?
Types of Causal Arguments
Types of Causal Arguments
Mill's Methods
Mill's Methods
Argument from Analogy
Summary: Argument from Analogy
Arguments from Analogy
Summary
Identifying Types of Arguments
Identifying More Difficult Arguments
Review Questions
True or False?
Discussion Questions
Informal Fallacies
Appeal to Authority
Appeal to the People
Appeal to Force
Appeal to Pity
Appeal to Ignorance
Ad Hominem
False Cause
Slippery Slope
Either/Or Fallacy
Equivocation
Hasty Generalization
Fallacy of Composition
Fallacy of Division
False Analogy
Begging the Question
Straw Man
Red Herring
Inconsistency
Summary
Identifying Fallacies
More Informal Fallacies
Composing Fallacies
Review Questions
True or False?
Discussion Questions
Evaluating Arguments
A Procedure for Argument Evaluation
Exposing Real Arguments
Omitting, Rewriting, and Paraphrasing
Omitting Sentences
Rewriting Sentences
Paraphrasing
Omitting, Rewriting, and Paraphrasing
More on Enthymemes: Plausible Interpretations
Real Enthymemes: Missing Premises and Conclusions
Examining Premises
More on Empirical and Nonempirical Statements
Statements Accepted by Appeal to Authority
More on Empirical and Nonempirical
Sample Evaluations
Sample Evaluation 1
Sample Evaluation 2
Evaluating Real Arguments
Review Questions
True or False?
Discussion Questions
Answers to Selected Exercises
Glossary
Index
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