Philosophy of History

ISBN-10: 0486437558
ISBN-13: 9780486437552
Edition: 2004
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Description: Hegel wrote this classic as an introduction to a series of lectures on the "philosophy of history"--a novel concept in the early 19th century. With this work, he created the history of philosophy as a scientific study. He reveals philosophical  More...

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Book details

List price: $12.95
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Dover Publications, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/10/2004
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 480
Size: 5.20" wide x 8.27" long x 0.91" tall
Weight: 0.572
Language: English

Hegel wrote this classic as an introduction to a series of lectures on the "philosophy of history"--a novel concept in the early 19th century. With this work, he created the history of philosophy as a scientific study. He reveals philosophical theory as neither an accident nor an artificial construct, but as an exemplar of its age, fashioned by its antecedents and contemporary circumstances, and serving as a model for the future. The author himself appears to have regarded this book a popular introduction to his philosophy as a whole, and it remains the most readable and accessible of all his philosophical writings. Translation by J. Sibree.

Born the son of a government clerk in Stuttgart, Germany, George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel received his education at Tubingen in theology. Arguably the most influential philosopher of the nineteenth century, Hegel's lectures---most notably at the University of Berlin from 1818 to his death---deeply influenced not only philosophers and historians but generations of political activists of both the Right and Left, champions of the all-powerful nation-state on the one hand and Karl Marx on the other. His lectures at Berlin were the platform from which he set forth the system elaborated in his writings. At the heart of Hegel's philosophy is his philosophy of history. In his view, history works in a series of dialectical steps---thesis, antithesis, synthesis. His whole system is founded on the great triad---the Idea as thesis, Nature as antithesis, and the Spirit as synthesis. The Idea is God's will; Nature is the material world, including man; Spirit is man's self-consciousness of the Idea, his coming to an understanding of God's will. The formation over time of this consciousness is History. Spirit does not exist in the abstract for Hegel, but is comprehended in "peoples," cultures, or civilizations, in practice states. Hegelian Freedom is only possible in organized states, where a National Spirit can be realized. This National Spirit, a part of the World Spirit, is realized in History largely through the actions of World Historical Individuals, heroes such as Napoleon, who embody that Spirit. A profound misunderstanding of this doctrine led many German intellectuals to subvert it into a narrow, authoritarian nationalism that glorified the "state" as an end in itself. Although Hegel saw his philosophy as universal, applicable throughout the world, the focus and inspiration of his thought was European. And in his own even smaller world, he was content to support and work for the Prussian state, which he believed to be the highest development of history up to that time.

Introduction
Original History
Reflective History
Philosophical History
Geographical Basis of History
Classification of Historic Data
The Oriental World
Principle of the Oriental World
China
India
Continued. India-Buddhism
Persia
The Zend People
The Assyrians, Babylonians, Medes, and Persians
The Persian Empire and its Constituent Parts
Persia
Syria and Semitic Western Asia
Judaea
Egypt
Transition to the Greek World
The Greek World
The Region of Spirit
The Elements of the Greek Spirit
Phases of Individuality AEsthetically Conditioned
The Subjective Work of Art
The Objective Work of Art
The Political Work of Art
The War with the Persians
Athens
Sparta
The Peloponnesian War
The Macedonian Empire
Fall of the Greek Spirit
The Roman World
Distinction between the Roman, Persian, and Greek Principle
Rome to the Time of the Second Punic War
The Elements of the Roman Spirit
History of Rome to the Second Punic War
Rome from the Second Punic War to the Emperors
Chapter I. Rome under the Emperors
Christianity
The Byzantine Empire
The German World
The Principle of Spiritual Freedom
The Elements of the Christian German World
The Barbarian Migrations
Mahometanism
The Empire of Charlemagne
The Middle Ages
The Feudality and the Hierarchy
The Crusade
The Transition from Feudalism to Monarchy
The Modern Time
The Reformation
Influence of the Reformation on Political Development
The Eclaircissement and Revolution

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