Introduction to Superconductivity

ISBN-10: 0486435032
ISBN-13: 9780486435039
Edition: 2nd 2004 (Revised)
Authors: Michael Tinkham
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Description: Accessible to graduate students and experimental physicists, this volume emphasizes physical arguments and minimizes theoretical formalism. Topics include the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer and Ginzburg-Landau theories, magnetic properties of classic  More...

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Book details

List price: $29.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Dover Publications, Incorporated
Publication date: 6/14/2004
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 480
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.320
Language: English

Accessible to graduate students and experimental physicists, this volume emphasizes physical arguments and minimizes theoretical formalism. Topics include the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer and Ginzburg-Landau theories, magnetic properties of classic type II superconductors, the Josephson effect, fluctuation effects in classic superconductors, high-temperature superconductors, and nonequilibrium superconductivity. 109 figures. 1996 edition.

Preface
Suggestions for Using This Book
Preface to the First Edition
Historical Overview
The Basic Phenomena
The London Equations
The Pippard Nonlocal Electrodynamics
The Energy Gap and the BCS Theory
The Ginzburg-Landau Theory
Type II Superconductors
Phase, Josephson Tunneling, and Fluxoid Quantization
Fluctuations and Nonequilibrium Effects
High-Temperature Superconductivity
Introduction to Electrodynamics of Superconductors
The London Equations
Screening of a Static Magnetic Field
Flat Slab in Parallel Magnetic Field
Critical Current of Wire
Type I Superconductors in Strong Magnetic Fields: The Intermediate State
Nonzero Demagnetizing Factor
Intermediate State in a Flat Slab
Intermediate State of a Sphere
Intermediate State above Critical Current of a Superconducting Wire
High-Frequency Electrodynamics
Complex Conductivity in Two-Fluid Approximation
High-Frequency Dissipation in Superconductors
The BCS Theory
Cooper Pairs
Origin of the Attractive Interaction
The BCS Ground State
Variational Method
Determination of the Coefficients
Evaluation of Ground-State Energy
Isotope Effect
Solution by Canonical Transformation
Excitation Energies and the Energy Gap
Finite Temperatures
Determination of T[subscript c]
Temperature Dependence of the Gap
Thermodynamic Quantities
State Functions and the Density of States
Density of States
Electron Tunneling
The Semiconductor Model
Normal-Normal Tunneling
Normal-Superconductor Tunneling
Superconductor-Superconductor Tunneling
Phonon Structure
Transition Probabilities and Coherence Effects
Ultrasonic Attenuation
Nuclear Relaxation
Electromagnetic Absorption
Electrodynamics
Calculation of K(0, T) or [lambda subscript L](T)
Calculation of K(q, 0)
Nonlocal Electrodynamics in Coordinate Space
Effect of Impurities
Complex Conductivity
The Penetration Depth
Preliminary Estimate of [lambda] for Nonlocal Case
Solution by Fourier Analysis
Temperature Dependence of [lambda]
Penetration Depth in Thin Films: [lambda subscript eff] and [lambda subscript perpendicular, bottom]
Measurement of [lambda]
Concluding Summary
Ginzburg-Landau Theory
The Ginzburg-Landau Free Energy
The Ginzburg-Landau Differential Equations
The Ginzburg-Landau Coherence Length
Calculations of the Domain-Wall Energy Parameter
Critical Current of a Thin Wire or Film
Fluxoid Quantization and the Little-Parks Experiment
The Fluxoid
The Little-Parks Experiment
Parallel Critical Field of Thin Flims
Thicker Films
The Linearized GL Equation
Nucleation in Bulk Samples: H[subscript c2]
Nucleation at Surfaces: H[subscript c3]
Nucleation in Films and Foils
Angular Dependence of the Critical Field of Thin Films
Nucleation in Films of Intermediate Thickness
The Abrikosov Vortex State at H[subscript c2]
Magnetic Properties of Classic Type II Superconductors
Behavior Near H[subscript c1]: The Structure of an Isolated Vortex
The High-[kappa] Approximation
Vortex-Line Energy
Interaction between Vortex Lines
Magnetization Curves
Low Flux Density
Intermediate Flux Densities
Regime Near H[subscript c2]
Flux Pinning, Creep, and Flow
Flux Flow
The Bardeen-Stephen Model
Onset of Resistance in a Wire
Experimental Verification of Flux Flow
Concluding Remarks on Flux Flow
The Critical-State Model
Thermally Activated Flux Creep
Anderson-Kim Flux-Creep Theory
Thermal Instability
Superconducting Magnets for Time-Varying Fields
Flux Jumps
Twisted Composite Conductors
Josephson Effect I: Basic Phenomena and Applications
Introduction
The Josephson Critical Current
Short One-Dimensional Metallic Weak Links
Other Weak Links
Gauge-Invariant Phase
The RCSJ Model
Definition of the Model
I-V Characteristics at T=0
Effects of Thermal Fluctuations
rf-Driven Junctions
Josephson Effect in Presence of Magnetic Flux
The Basic Principle of Quantum Interference
Extended Junctions
Time-Dependent Solutions
SQUID Devices
The dc SQUID
The rf SQUID
SQUID Applications
Arrays of Josephson Junctions
Arrays in Zero Magnetic Field
Arrays in Uniform Magnetic Field
Arrays in rf Fields: Giant Shapiro Steps
S-I-S Detectors and Mixers
S-I-S Detectors
S-I-S Mixers
Josephson Effect II: Phenomena Unique to Small Junctions
Introduction
Damping Effect of Lead Impedance
Effect on Retrapping Current
The Phase Diffusion Branch
Quantum Consequences of Small Capacitance
Particle Number Eigenstates
Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling
Introduction to Single Electron Tunneling: The Coulomb Blockade and Staircase
Energy and Charging Relations in Quasi-Equilibrium
Zero Bias Circuit with Normal Island
Even-Odd Number Parity Effect with Superconducting Island
Zero Bias Supercurrents with Superconducting Island and Leads
Double-Junction Circuit with Finite Bias Voltage
Orthodox Theory and Determination of the I-V Curve
The Special Case R[subscript 2] [double greater-than sign] R[subscript 1]
Cotunneling or Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling of Charge
Superconducting Island with Finite Bias Voltage
Fluctuation Effects in Classic Superconductors
Appearance of Resistance in a Thin Superconducting Wire
Appearance of Resistance in a Thin Superconducting Film: The Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition
Superconductivity above T[subscript c] in Zero-Dimensional Systems
Spatial Variation of Fluctuations
Fluctuation Diamagnetism above T[subscript c]
Diamagnetism in Two-Dimensional Systems
Time Dependence of Fluctuations
Fluctuation-Enhanced Conductivity above T[subscript c]
Three Dimensions
Two Dimensions
One Dimension
Anomalous Contributions to Fluctuation Conductivity
High-Frequency Conductivity
The High-Temperature Superconductors
Introduction
The Lawrence-Doniach Model
The Anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau Limit
Crossover to Two-Dimensional Behavior
Discussion
Magnetization of Layered Superconductors
The Anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau Regime
The Lock-In Transition
Flux Motion and the Resistive Transition: An Initial Overview
The Melting Transition
A Simple Model Calculation
Experimental Evidence
Two-Dimensional vs. Three-Dimensional Melting
The Effect of Pinning
Pinning Mechanisms in HTSC
Larkin-Ovchinnikov Theory of Collective Pinning
Giant Flux Creep in the Collective Pinning Model
The Vortex-Glass Model
Correlated Disorder and the Boson Glass Model
Granular High-Temperature Superconductors
Effective Medium Parameters
Relationship between Granular and Continuum Models
The "Brick-Wall" Model
Fluxons and High-Frequency Losses
Anomalous Properties of High-Temperature and Exotic Superconductors
Unconventional Pairing
Pairing Symmetry and Flux Quantization
The Energy Gap
Heavy Fermion Superconductors
Special Topics
The Bogoliubov Method: Generalized Self-Consistent Field
Dirty Superconductors
Uniform Current in Pure Superconductors
Excitations in Vortex
Magnetic Perturbations and Gapless Superconductivity
Depression of T[subscript c] by Magnetic Perturbations
Density of States
Time-Dependent Ginzburg-Landau Theory
Electron-Phonon Relaxation
Nonequilibrium Superconductivity
Introduction
Quasi-Particle Disequilibrium
Energy-Mode vs. Charge-Mode Disequilibrium
Relaxation Times
Energy-Mode Disequilibrium: Steady-State Enhancement of Superconductivity
Enhancement by Microwaves
Enhancement by Extraction of Quasi-Particles
Energy-Mode Disequilibrium: Dynamic Nonequilibrium Effects
GL Equation for Time-Dependent Gap
Transient Superconductivity above I[subscript c]
Dynamic Enhancement in Metallic Weak Links
Charge-Mode Disequilibrium: Steady-State Regimes
Andreev Reflection
Subharmonic Energy Gap Structure
Time-Dependent Charge-Mode Disequilibrium: Phase-Slip Centers
Units
Notation and Conventions
Exact Solution for Penetration Depth by Fourier Analysis
Bibliography
Index

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