Occupational Biomechanics

ISBN-10: 0471723436
ISBN-13: 9780471723431
Edition: 4th 2006 (Revised)
List price: $160.00
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Description: Occupational biomechanics are concerned with physiological loads and stresses placed on the human body as a result of work-related tasks. By thoroughly examining and explaining the mechanics and anatomy of human movement, the text provides the  More...

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Book details

List price: $160.00
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 5/5/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 376
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.684
Language: English

Occupational biomechanics are concerned with physiological loads and stresses placed on the human body as a result of work-related tasks. By thoroughly examining and explaining the mechanics and anatomy of human movement, the text provides the reader with an understanding of such principles in order to permit the design of ergonomically "friendly" work routines, instruments, equipment, and environments. It describes the mechanical side of ergonomics.

DON B. CHAFFIN, PhD, is a Distinguished University Professor of Industrial and Operations Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, and Occupational Health; and Director of the Human Motion Simulation Laboratory at the University of Michigan.GUNNAR B. J. ANDERSSON, MD, PhD, is Chairman and Professor of Orthopedic Surgery at the Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois.BERNARD J. MARTIN, PhD, DSc, is Associate Professor of Industrial and Operations Engineering and research fellow in the Division of Kinesiology at the University of Michigan.

Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments
Occupational Biomechanics as a Specialty
Definition of Occupational Biomechanics
Historical Development of Occupational Biomechanics
Kinesiological Developments
Developments in Biomechanical Modeling
Developments in Anthropometry
Methods for Evaluating Mechanical Work Capacity
Developments in Bioinstrumentation
Developments in Motion Classification and Time Prediction Systems
The Need for an Occupational Biomechanics Specialty
Epidemiological Support for Occupational Biomechanics
Social and Legal Support for Occupational Biomechanics
Ergonomic Support for Occupational Biomechanics
Who Uses Occupational Biomechanics?
Organization of The Book
Review Questions
References
The Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System
Introduction
Connective Tissue
Ligaments, Tendons, and Fascia
Cartilage
Bone
Skeletal Muscle
The Structure of Muscles
The Molecular Basis of Muscle Contraction
The Energy Metabolism of Muscle
The Nerve Impulse Causing Muscle Contraction
Mechanical Aspects of Muscle Contraction
Muscle Fatigue
Quantification and Prediction of Fatigue
Age and Gender Sensitivity to Fatigue
The Action of Muscles
Joints
The Synovial Joint
Joint Lubrication
Osteoarthritis
Intervertebral Discs
Review Questions
References
Anthropometry in Occupational Biomechanics
Measurement of Physical Properties of Body Segments
Body-segment Link Length Measurement Methods
Body-segment Volume and Weight
Body-segment Locations of Center of Mass
Body-segment Inertial Property Measurement Methods
Anthropometric Data for Biomechanical Studies in Industry
Segment Link Length Data
Segment Weight Data
Segment Mass-center Location Data
Segment Moment-of-Inertia and Radius-of-Gyration Data
Summary of Anthropometry in Occupational Biomechanics
Review Questions
References
Mechanical Work Capacity Evaluation
Introduction
Joint Motion: Methods and Data
Methods of Measuring Joint Motion
Normal Ranges of Joint Motion
Factors Affecting Range-of-Motion Data
Muscle Strength Evaluation
Definition of Muscular Strength
Static and Dynamic Strength-Testing Methods
Population Muscle Strength Values
Personal Factors Affecting Strength
Summary and Limitations of Mechanical Work-Capacity Data
Review Questions
References
Bioinstrumentation for Occupational Biomechanics
Introduction
Human Motion Analysis Systems
Basis for Measuring Human Motion
Muscle Activity Measurement
Applied Electromyography
Mechanomyography
Intramuscular Pressure
Muscle Strength Measurement Systems
Localized Static Strength Measurement Systems
Whole-Body Static Strength Measurement System
Whole-Body Dynamic Strength Measurement System
Intradiscal Pressure Measurement
Measurement Concept
Intradiscal Pressure Measurement System
Applications and Limitations in Occupational Biomechanics
Intra-Abdominal (Intragastric) Measurements
Measurement Development
Measurement System
Applications and Limitations in Occupational Biomechanics
Seat Pressure Measurement Systems
Stature Measurement System
Force Platform System
Foot and Hand Force Measurement System
Measurement of Vibration in Humans
Review Questions
References
Occupational Biomechanical Models
Why Model?
Planar Static Biomechanical Models
Single-body-segment Static Model
Two-body-segment Static Model
Static Planar Model of Nonparallel Forces
Planar Static Analysis of Internal Forces
Multiple-Link Coplanar Static Modeling
Three-Dimensional Modeling of Static Strength
Dynamic Biomechanical Models
Single-segment Dynamic Biomechanical Model
Multiple-segment Biodynamic Model of Load Lifting
Coplanar Biomechanical Models of Foot Slip Potential While Pushing a Cart
Special-Purpose Biomechanical Models of Occupational Tasks
Low-back Biomechanical Models
Biomechanical Models of the Wrist and Hand
Modeling Muscle Strength
Future Developments in Occupational Biomechanical Models
Review Questions
References
Methods of Classifying and Evaluating Manual Work
Traditional Methods
Historical Perspective
Traditional Work Analysis System
MTM: An Example of a Predetermined Motion-Time System
Benefits and Limitations in Contemporary Work Analysis Systems
Contemporary Biomechanical Job Analysis
Identification of Musculoskeletal Injury Problems
Analyzing Biomechanical Risk Factors
Specialized Biomechanical Risk Factor Evaluation
Emgs in Job Evaluation
Future Impact of Occupational Biomechanics on Work Analysis Systems
Review Questions
References
Manual Material-Handling Limits
Introduction
Lifting Limits in Manual Material Handling
Scope of NIOSH Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting
Basis and Structure of the 1994 NIOSH-Recommended Weight-Lifting Limit
Example of NIOSH RWL Procedure
Comments on the Status of the NIOSH Lifting Guide
Alternative Recommendations for Evaluating Manual Lifting Tasks
Pushing and Pulling Capabilities
Foot-slip Prevention During Pushing and Pulling
Asymmetric Load Handling
Toward a Comprehensive Manual Material-Handling Guide
Recommendations for Improving Manual Material-Handling Tasks
Summary of Manual Material-handling Recommendations and Evaluation Methods
Review Questions
References
Guidelines for Work in Sitting Postures
General Considerations Related to Sitting Postures
Anthropometric Aspects of Seated Workers
Comfort
The Spine and Sitting
Clinical Aspects of Sitting Postures
Radiographic Data
Disc Pressure Data During Sitting
Muscle Activity
Sitting Postures and The Spine
The Shoulder and Sitting
The Legs and Sitting
The Sitting Workplace
The Office Chair
The Table in a Seated Workplace
Visual Display Terminal Workstations
Summary
Review Questions
References
Biomechanical Considerations in Machine Control and Workplace Design
Introduction
Localized Musculoskeletal Injury in Industry
Practical Guidelines for Workplace and Machine Control Layout
Structure-Function Characteristics of the Shoulder Mechanism
Shoulder-Dependent Overhead Reach Limitations
Shoulder- and Arm-Dependent Forward Reach Limits
Neck-Head Posture Work Limitations
Torso Postural Considerations In Workbench Height Limitations
Biomechanical Considerations In The Design Of Computer Workstations
Summary
Review Questions
References
Hand-Tool Design Guidelines
The Need for Biomechanical Concepts in Design
Shape and Size Considerations
Shape for Avoiding Wrist Deviation
Shape for Avoiding Shoulder Abduction
Shape to Assist Grip
Size of Tool Handle to Facilitate Grip
Finger Clearance Considerations
Gloves
Hand-Tool Weight and Use Considerations
Force Reaction Considerations in Powered Hand-Tool Design
Keyboard Design Considerations
Posture Stress
Keying Exertion Force Repetition
Summary
Review Questions
References
Guidelines for Whole-Body and Segmental Vibration
Definitions and Measurement
Definitions
Measurement of Vibration
General Effects of Vibration on Human Beings
Whole-Body Vibration
Effects of Low-Frequency Vibration
Effects of Middle-Frequency Vibration
Biomechanical Effects on the Spine
Physiological Responses
Hand-Arm Vibration
Transmission of Vibration in the Upper Extremity
Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome
Sensorimotor Effects
Vibration Exposure Criteria
Whole-Body Vibration Recommendations
Hand-Arm Vibration Recommendations
Control and Prevention
Review Questions
References
Worker Selection, Training, and Personal Protective Device Consideration
Worker Selection
Introduction To Worker Selection
History And Physical Examination
Radiographic Preplacement Examination
Quantitative Physical Preplacement Screening
Preplacement Training
General Content of Training
How Workers Should Be Trained
Biomechanical Aspects of Back Belts
Passive Stiffness Effects of Back Belts
Abdominal Pressure Effects of Back Belts
Reduced Torso Mobility Effects Due to Back Belts
Job Rotation and Psychosocial Stress
Summary
Review Questions
References
Summary
References
Anatomical and Anthropometric Landmarks as Presented by Webb and Associates
Glossary of Anatomical and Anthropometric Terms
Population Weight and Mass-Center Data
Segment Weight Values Derived from Regression Equations Using Total Body Weight as the Independent Variable
Anatomical Location of Segment Centers of Gravity (Center of Mass)
Segment Moments of Inertia
Joint Center Locations and Link Definitions
Terms and Units of Measurement in Biomechanics
NIOSH 1994 Tables
Push and Pull Fore Tables
Data Gathering-Job Risk Factors
Some General Web Sites that Complement References in Text
Index

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