Ethics of Emerging Technologies Scientific Facts and Moral Challenges

ISBN-10: 0471692123
ISBN-13: 9780471692126
Edition: 2006
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Description: An insightful guide to understanding and navigating the ethical issues faced by anyone affected by the ethical dilemmas associated with current and emerging technologiesEthics of Emerging Technologies provides the background, insight, and tools for  More...

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Book details

List price: $99.00
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/7/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 512
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.618
Language: English

An insightful guide to understanding and navigating the ethical issues faced by anyone affected by the ethical dilemmas associated with current and emerging technologiesEthics of Emerging Technologies provides the background, insight, and tools for approaching and solving ethical dilemmas across a broad range of topics. The text discusses ethical problems, using examples and reasoning tools that will aid engineers, scientists, managers, administrators, and the public who wish to understand risks, benefits, and possible approaches to resolving conflicts associated with new technologies in the context of the global community.Solutions we choose to ethical dilemmas accompanying new technologies will profoundly affect future generations. Scientific facts and guides to decision-making for all associated with emerging technologies are presented. Some of the topics are:Human health and environmental effects of alternative energy production methodsCommunications and privacyPlagiarism and authorshipGenetic modification of organismsHuman and animal experimentationSynthetic biology and bioterrorismConfidentiality in science, engineering, and business communicationsRisks and consequences of enhancing human beings through new technologiesCloning of human beings and stem cell researchBrain modificationsSpace exploration

THOMAS F. BUDINGER, MD, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Bioengineering and the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley; Professor in Residence in the Department of Radiology at the University of California, San Francisco; head of the Department of Nuclear Medicine & Functional Imaging at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine.MIRIAM D. BUDINGER, MD, is a pediatrician and physician scientist with a career that has focused on adolescent medicine, infectious diseases, and the design and conduct of clinical trials in immunocompromised patients. She is currently a Visiting Scholar at the University of California, Berkeley.

Preface
Ethical Principles, Reasoning, and Decision Making
Introduction
Designing Solutions to Ethical Dilemmas
Evolution of Ethical Principles
Virtue Ethics
Justice Ethics
Rules Ethics
Rights Ethics
Duty Ethics
Modern Duty Ethics and Ross's Prima Facie Duties
Utilitarianism
Analysis of Duty Ethics vs. Utilitarianism
Autonomy vs. Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism vs. Justice: Allocation of Limited Resources
Other Moral Theories
Cultural Relativism
Pragmatism
Pluralism
Subjectivism
Minimum Conception of Morality
Other Concepts and Ideologies
Principles That Guide Human Experimentation
Dangers of Expediency and the Slippery Slope Theory
Learning Values and Cheating in Life
Synopsis of Tools for Resolving Ethical Dilemmas
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Problem Set
Ethics in Scientific Research
Introduction
Definition of Scientific Misconduct
Categories of Scientific Misconduct
Unethical Conduct by Researchers
Ethical Transgressions by Authors
Ethical Transgressions by Reviewers
Examples of Scientific Misconduct
Responsible Authorship
Guidelines for Authorship for Bioscience Journals
National Academy of Sciences Guidance on Responsible Authorship
Practical Guidelines for Assigning Authorship
Ranking of Authors
Stealing and Copyright
Plagiarism
Motives for Scientific Misconduct and Countermeasures
Discovery of Scientific Misconduct and Whistleblowing
Criteria for Whistleblowing
Consequences of Being Accused of Scientific Misconduct, and Protection When Accused of Scientific Misconduct
Whistleblower Protection Act (WPA)
Approaches to Scientific Misconduct: What Should Be Done?
Responsibilities of Individual Researchers
Responsibilities of Government, Universities, and Research Institutions
Conflict of Interest as a Category of Scientific Misconduct
Managing Conflicts of Interest
Conflicts between Goals of Commercialism and the Tenets of Academia
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Appendix
Federal Policy on Research Misconduct
Problem Set
Information Technology Ethics
Introduction
The Benefits and Problems Generated by the Information Technologies
Benefits
Problems Associated with IT
Invasion of Privacy Due to Faulty Engineering of Computer Systems and Software Programs
Risks to Privacy by Outsourcing Private Information to Other Countries
Collection, Storage, Selling, and Unauthorized Use of Personal Information
Loss of Privacy by Monitoring
Ethics of Camera Surveillance in Public Places
Unauthorized Use of Intellectual Property (IP)
Hacking and Hoaxes
Plagiarism
Journalism on the Internet
Theft, Deception, and Fraud on the Internet
Censorship in Internet Communications
Spam
Availability of Information Technologies
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Appendix
Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects: Security of Research Subjects' Personally Identifiable Data Held by Researchers (Excerpts from http://chps.berkeley.edu)
Problem Set
Business Ethics
Introduction
Historical Background
Design Strategy for Corporate Ethical Dilemmas
Corporate Practices Challenge Ethical Theories
Differences in Corporate Tactics
Credo vs. Vision Statement
Guidelines and Pitfalls of Corporate Strategies
Conflicts in Ethical Theories
Beneficence to the Community vs. Duty to the Stockholders
Utilitarianism vs. Justice
Duty vs. Justice and Virtue
Non-Malfeasance vs. Utilitarianism
Virtue vs. Duty
Corporate Responsibilities
Responsibilities to Employees
Ethnic, Religious, and Sexual Harassment Issues in the Workplace
Responsibilities to the Public
Responsibilities in Business with a Foreign Country
Responsibilities to the Ecosystem
The Ethics of the Professional Employee
Confidentiality
Confidentiality When Changing Jobs
Loyalty vs. Duty to Report Misdeeds
Whistleblower Responsibility of Corporate Employees
Obligations to Report Safety Violations or Threats to the Public
Conflicts of Interest
Federal Reaction to Corporate Fraud
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Web Sites Helpful for Business Ethics Issues
Appendix
Some Strategic Rules from Sun Tzu (Michaelson 2001)
Problem Set
Environmental Ethics
Introduction
Current Energy Production and Use
Predicted Energy Needs for the Future
Transportation: the Greatest Consumer of Fossil Fuels
Energy Use by Communications Technologies
Alternative Energy Technologies
Fuel Cells
Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear Fusion as a Source of Energy
Wind Production of Energy
Hydroelectric Production and Storage of Energy
Solar Source of Electricity and Fuel
Moral, Spiritual, and Ideological Perspectives on the Environment
Using vs. Saving the Environment
The Dimensions of the Moral Community
Moral Theories and the Environment
Religious or Spiritual Approaches to the Environment
Ideological Approaches to the Environment
Anthropocentrism
Biocentrism
Ecocentrism
Deep Ecology
Ecofeminist Approach to the Environment
Modern Pantheist Approach
A Conceptual Structure for Environmental Ethics Based on Relative Value
The Global Environment
Responsibility for Technologies We Create
The Tragedy of the Commons
Where We Go from Here
Societal Efforts to Prevent Environment Degradation and Promote Sustainability
Summary of International Conferences to Protect and Sustain the Environment
The Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Vienna, Austria, 1985, and the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, Montreal, Canada, 1987
U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 1992
U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto, Japan, 1997
United Nations Millennium Summit, New York, New York, 2000
United Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2002
U.N. World Environment Conference of Mayors, San Francisco, California, June 2005
The G8 Annual Conferences
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Appendix
Physical Dimensions and Units
Problem Set
Ethics of Genetically Modified Organisms
Introduction
Processes Involved in Genetic Engineering of Plants and Animals
Genetic Modification of Plants without the Introduction of Foreign DNA
Stimulation of Mutations in Plants by Chemicals or Ionizing Radiation
Stimulation of Transposons to Induce Changes in the Plant Genome by Stress
In Situ Microsurgery to Stimulate Transposon-Induced Changes in Plants and Animals
Genetic Modification of Plants and Animals by Transfer of Foreign DNA
Genetic Modification by Microinjection of DNA into Cells
Genetic Modification by Gene Transfer Using Plasmids and Bacteria
Biolistic Impaction Method of Gene Transfer into Plants
Growth in the Use of GMO Products
Benefits and Risks of GMOs
Benefits
Risks of Genetically Modified Organisms
Concerns about Physical Escape of GMOs into the Wild
Concerns about the Biology of Horizontal Gene Transfer
Concerns about Biodiversity and Perturbations in Biologic Evolution
Concerns about Marker Genes and Other Modifications
Concerns about Genetically Modified Animals
Concerns about Who Will Benefit
Concerns about GMO Labeling
Cumulative Effect of Concerns about GMOs
Ongoing Efforts to Evaluate and Provide Information on GMOs
U. S. Government Oversight and Regulations
FDA's Biotechnology Policy
USDA/APHIS Regulation of Bioengineered Plants
Environmental Protection Agency Functions
Involvement of the U.S. Congress
The United States vs. the European Union Stance on GMOs
International Regulatory Approach to GMOs: U.N. Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
Ethical Issues
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Appendices
Estimating the Future Increases in World Population
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: Risk Assessment
Problem Set
Medical Ethics
Background
General Medical Ethics
Codes of Professional Conduct
Patients' Rights to Information
Confidentiality
Responsibilities of the Physician Regarding Disclosure of Patient Information
Ownership of Medical Information
Refusal of Treatment
Ethics of Rendering Medical Aid
When Options for Continuing Care Conflict with a Physician's Ethics
Ethics of Medical Mistakes
Physician Conflicts of Interest
The Ethics of Futile Care
Use of Medical Marijuana
The Ethics of Dying
Who Decides on Life Support and Death?
Advance Health Care Directives
Arguments against Advance Health Care Directives
Sacrifice of One Life to Save Another
Physician-Assisted Suicide
Summary of the Ethics of Physician-Assisted Suicide
Resource Allocation and Organ Transplantation
Ways to Maximize the Availability of Scarce Resources
Ethical Considerations of Organ Transplantation
Use of Fetal Tissues
Transplantation Procedures for Prisoners
Buying and Selling of Body Tissues and Organs
Distribution of Care When Resources Are Limited
Treatment in Situations of Extreme Illness
Human Experimentation and Animal Experimentation
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Appendices
California Advance Health Care Directive
(California Probate Code Section 4701)
Organ Transplantation Evaluation by Institute of Medicine
AMA Section E-2.03 Allocation of Limited Medical Resources
Problem Set
Ethics of Human and Animal Experimentation
Ethics of Human Experimentation
Background
Current Guidelines for Research on Human Beings
IRB Duties
IRB Composition
Guidelines for IRB Activities
Informed Consent Procedures
Variety of Human Experiments
Proposed Modifications of Regulations on Protection for Human Subjects Involved in Medical Research
Noted Examples of Human Experimentation
Summary of Human Experimentation
Ethics of Animal Experimentation
Cultural Attitudes toward Animals
Animal Malfeasance vs. Medical Benefits
Federal Regulations
Reduction in the Need for Animals
Mircoarray and Phage Array Technologies
Animal Imaging Technologies
Transgenic Animals
Summary of Issues in Animal Experimentation
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Appendix
Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) Informed Consent Checklist-Basic and Additional Elements of the Consent Form for Research Subjects
Problem Set
Ethics of Assisted Reproductive Technologies
Introduction
Types of ART
In Vitro Fertilization
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
Polar Body Analysis
Embryo Biopsy
Success Rates of ART
Risks of ART
Regulation of ART in the United States
Ethical Concerns about ART
The Ethics of IVF
Ethical Issues of PGD
Cloning
Reproductive Cloning
Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning Differences
Experience with Reproductive Cloning in Animals
Ethical Issues Surrounding Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning
Ethical Issues Surrounding Reproductive Cloning
Arguments for Reproductive Cloning
Arguments against Reproductive Cloning
Justice and Fairness in the Cloning Debate
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Appendices
Appendix 9.1
Appendix 9.2
Problem Set
Ethics of Stem Cell Technologies
Introduction
Background
Types of Stem Cells and Their Origins
Embryonic Stem (ES) Cells
Alternative Sources of Embryonic Stem Cells
Embryonic Germ (EG) Cells
Adult Stem Cells
Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Cord-Blood Stem Cells
Current Status of Embryonic Stem Cell Research
Status of Adult Stem Cell Research
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Neurogenesis
Myogenesis
Heart Muscle Regeneration
Liver Regeneration
Pancreas Regeneration
Lung Renewal
Summary of Technical Status of Adult Stem Cell Research
Ethical Issues in Embryonic Stem Cell Research and Therapy
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Problem Set
Ethics of Enhancement Technologies
Introduction
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis
Ethical Implications of PGD
Gene Therapy
Overview of Uses for Enhancement and Methodology
Somatic Gene Therapy
Gene Therapy for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency with Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency (ADA-SCID)
Children Undergoing Gene Therapy for X-Linked SCID
History of Gene Therapy
Gene Therapy for Parkinson's Disease
Gene Therapy for Hemophilia
Somatic Gene Therapy for Human Enhancement
Gene Therapy to Enhance Muscle Strength
In Utero Somatic Gene Therapy
Regulation of Somatic Gene Therapy
Current Status and Future Plans for Human Gene Therapy
Ethical Issues of Somatic Gene Therapy for Enhancement
Germline Gene Therapy
Methodology of Proposed Germline Gene Therapy
Ethical Issues of Germline Gene Therapy
Arguments for Germline Gene Therapy
Arguments against Germline Gene Therapy
Oversight for Germline Engineering
Enhancement by Drugs or Other Means
Drug Use to Enhance Performance in Sport
Background
History of Drug Use in Modern Sport
Substances Used to Enhance Performance (Doping)
Caffeine
Ephedrine, Phenylephrine, Epinephrine, and Ephedra and other Alpha-Adrenergic Drugs
Amphetamines and Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Growth Hormone
Diuretics
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG)
Creatine and Androstenidione
Reasons Athletes Use Drugs
Prevalence of Doping
Enhancement of Behavior through Drugs
Body Enhancement by Surgery
Ethics of Behavioral and Physical Enhancements
Ethical Duties of the Medical Practitioner
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Appendix 11.1
Problem Set
Ethics of Emerging Technologies
Introduction
Risk Analysis and Cost-Benefit Analysis
Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)
Nanotechnology
Synthetic Biology
Ethics of Emerging Threats of Terrorism
Neuroenhancements and Neuroengineering
Deep Brain Stimulation
Brain-Computer Interfacing
Regenerative and Rehabilitative Neurology
Brain Imaging
Psychopharmacology
Ethics of Human Space Exploration
Ethics in Colonization of the Moon and Mars
The Role of Government in Evaluating the Risks of New Technologies
Chapter Summary
References
Additional Reading
Problem Set
Glossary
Index

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