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Sonar for Practising Engineers

ISBN-10: 0471497509
ISBN-13: 9780471497509
Edition: 3rd 2001 (Revised)
Authors: A. D. Waite
List price: $86.95 Buy it from $41.86 Rent it from $36.16
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Description: Written by an engineer for engineers, this book takes an engineering approach rather than a physics/math one. It provides an understanding of the basic principles of sonar, developing the formulae and rules of thumb for sonar design.

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Book details

List price: $86.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 5/6/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 324
Size: 6.65" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.386

Written by an engineer for engineers, this book takes an engineering approach rather than a physics/math one. It provides an understanding of the basic principles of sonar, developing the formulae and rules of thumb for sonar design.

Preface
About the Author
Introduction
Sound
Wave motion
Sound pressure
Reference intensity
Source level
Radiated power
Limitations to sonar power
Cavitation
Interaction
Changes to arrays
Projector sensitivity
Hydrophone sensitivity
Spectrum level
Sound in air and in sea water
Problems
Arrays
Need for projector arrays
Need for hydrophone arrays
Beam patterns
Directivity of a dipole
The general line array
Line array: beam pattern vs. steer angle
Broadside array: length and spacing
Beam pattern for a continuous line
Shading
Shaded arrays: transmit source levels
Directivity index
DI of a simple dipole
DI of a line array
DI of a planar array
DI of a cylindrical array
DI formulae based for simple arrays
Conformal arrays
Spherical arrays
Volumetric arrays
Beamformers
Domes and arrays
Problems
Propagation of Sound in the Sea
Propagation loss
Losses
Spreading losses
Absorption losses
Spherical spreading and absorption
Propagation in the real ocean
The speed of sound
Sound speed profiles
Deep sound channel
Reliable acoustic path
Surface duct propagation
Convergence zone propagation
Bottom bounce propagation
Propagation loss models
Ray theory and the Hodgson model
Hodgson example
Performance prediction
Multipath propagation
Problems
Target Strength
Definition
Formulae
Measurement
Dependence on pulse type and duration
TS of a sphere
TS of some simple shapes
TS of small targets
Mine target strength
Torpedo target strength
Submarine echoes
Beam aspect target strength
Bow aspect target strength
Submarine target strengths
Towed arrays
Target strength reduction
Practical values
Problems
Noise in Sonar Systems
Sources of noise
Thermal noise
Noise from the sea
Noise from a vessel
The sonar environment
Self-noise
Electrical noise
Machinery noise
Flow noise
Propeller noise
Variation with speed
Variation with frequency
Directivity
Self-noise and radiated noise
Addition of noise levels
Receiver noise factor
Noise factor of a sonar
Acceptable receiver noise level
Alternative calculation
Practical values
Problems
Reverberation
Sources of reverberation
Scattering and reflection
Boundary roughness
Classes of reverberation
Backscattering strength
Reverberation target strength
Volume reverberation
Boundary reverberation
Scattering layers
Volume scattering strength
Sea surface scattering strength
Bottom scattering strength
Variation with frequency
Reverberation under ice
Problems
The Sonar Equations
What are they?
What are their uses?
The basic sonar equation
The basic passive equation
The basic active equation
Detection threshold and detection index
Receiver operating characteristics
ROC curves
Problems
Passive Sonar
Radiated noise
Radiated noise: source level
Nature of radiated noise
Practical values
Broadband and narrowband
Normalization
A Note on Swaths
Passive arrays
Passive aural
Passive displays
Formulae for detection threshold
Broadband square law detector
Broadband cross-correlator detector
Narrowband processor
Narrowband amplitude detector processor
Worked examples
Passive ranging
Triangulation
Vertical direct passive ranging
Horizontal direct passive ranging
Towed arrays
Bearing ambiguity
Self-noise
Problems
Active Sonar
Range, pings and doppler shift
Pulse types
CW processing
FM processing
Active sonar equations
Reverberation index
FM pulses
CW pulses
Reverberation rejection by CW pulses
Reverberation and Target Echoes in the main lobe
Reverberation and Target Echoes in the sidelobes
Practical reverberation envelopes
Full- and half-beam processing
Beamforming
FM phase binning process
CW processing
Large aperture array
Detection performance
Noise and reverberation-limited detection ranges
Ambiguity diagrams
Very long pulses
Operational degradation factor
Active displays
Unified detection and classification
Bandwidth
Beamwidth
CADAC
Levels of CADAC
CADAC and pulse features
Statistical analysis
Amplitude profiles
Multipath affects classification
Simple multipath example
Deep water: source and target in duct
Deep water: source and target below duct
Shallow water: source and target mid-water
Problems
Echo Sounding and Side Scan Sonars
Common features
Echo sounders
Echo sounder: design example
Side scan sonar
Side scan sonar: design example
Problem
Mine Hunting Sonars
Overview
Two broad classes of mine
Backgrounds to mine detection
Range and bearing resolution
Design of a mine hunting sonar
The threats
Design example
Performance
Classification
Mine avoidance
Mine avoidance sonars
Problems
Intercept and Communications Sonars
Intercept sonars
Communications sonars
Function of an intercept sonar
Intercept sonar equation
Worked examples
Reduction in the probability of intercept
Reduction in the probability of exploitation
Effectiveness of intercept sonars
Communications sonars
Communications sonar equation
Examples of communications sonars
Problems
Active Sonar Design
Introduction
Submarine detection
Hull-mounted surface ship sonar
Representative hull-mounted design
Longer ranges
Towed transmitters and towed array receivers
Representative design
Low frequency active: beware!
Torpedo detection
Conclusion
Solutions to Problems
Index

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