Practical Statistics for Nursing and Health Care

ISBN-10: 0471497169
ISBN-13: 9780471497165
Edition: 2002
List price: $71.95 Buy it from $13.37
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Description: Statistics is a topic nurses and health care providers must understand if they plan on reading research reports, critically appraise the empirical literature, and utilise research in their practice. This book introduces statistical techniques.

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Book details

List price: $71.95
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 2/15/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 232
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.25" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.902

Statistics is a topic nurses and health care providers must understand if they plan on reading research reports, critically appraise the empirical literature, and utilise research in their practice. This book introduces statistical techniques.

Preface
Foreword to Students
Introduction
What do we mean by statistics?
Why is statistics necessary?
The limitations of statistics
Calculators and computers in statistics
The purpose of this text
Health Care Investigations: Measurement and Sampling Concepts
Introduction
Populations, samples and observations
Counting things--the sampling unit
Sampling strategy
Target and study populations
Sample designs
Simple random sampling
Systematic sampling
Stratified sampling
Quota sampling
Cluster sampling
Sampling designs--summary
Statistics and parameters
Descriptive and inferential statistics
Parametric and non-parametric statistics
Processing Data
Scales of measurement
The nominal scale
The ordinal scale
The interval scale
The ratio scale
Conversion of interval observations to an ordinal scale
Derived variables
Logarithms
The precision of observations
How precise should we be?
The frequency table
Aggregating frequency classes
Frequency distribution of count observations
Bivariate data
Presenting Data
Introduction
Dot plot or line plot
Bar graph
Histogram
Frequency polygon and frequency curve
Scattergram
Circle or pie graph
Clinical Trials
Introduction
The nature of clinical trials
Clinical trial designs
Psychological effects and blind trials
Historical controls
Ethical issues
Case study: Leicestershire Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) study
Summary
Introduction to Epidemiology
Introduction
Measuring disease
Study designs--cohort studies
Study designs--case-control studies
Cohort or case-control study?
Choice of comparison group
Confounding
Summary
Measuring the Average
What is an average?
The mean
Calculating the mean of grouped data
The median--a resistant statistic
The median of a frequency distribution
The mode
Relationship between mean, median and mode
Measuring Variability
Variability
The range
The standard deviation
Calculating the standard deviation
Calculating the standard deviation from grouped data
Variance
An alternative formula for calculating the variance and standard deviation
Obtaining the standard deviation and sum of squares from a calculator
Degrees of freedom
The Coefficient of Variation (CV)
Probability and the Normal Curve
The meaning of probability
Compound probabilities
Critical probability
Probability distribution
The normal curve
Some properties of the normal curve
Standardizing the normal curve
Two-tailed or one-tailed?
Small samples: the t-distribution
Are our data 'normal'?
Dealing with 'non-normal' data
How Good are Our Estimates?
Sampling error
The distribution of a sample mean
The confidence interval of a mean of a large sample
The confidence interval of a mean of a small sample
The difference between the means of two large samples
The difference between the means of two small samples
Estimating a proportion
The finite population correction
The Basis of Statistical Testing
Introduction
The experimental hypothesis
The statistical hypothesis
Test statistics
One-tailed and two-tailed tests
Hypothesis testing and the normal curve
Type 1 and type 2 errors
Parametric and non-parametric statistics: some further observations
The power of a test
Analysing Frequencies
The chi-squared test
Calculating the test statistic
A practical example of a test for homogeneous frequencies
One degree of freedom--Yates' correction
Goodness of fit tests
The contingency table--tests for association
The 'rows by columns' (r x c) contingency table
Larger contingency tables
Advice on analysing frequencies
Measuring Correlations
The meaning of correlation
Investigating correlation
The strength and significance of a correlation
The Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
The coefficient of determination r[superscript 2]
The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient r[subscript s]
Advice on measuring correlations
Regression Analysis
Introduction
Gradients and triangles
Dependent and independent variables
A perfect rectilinear relationship
The line of least squares
Simple linear regression
Fitting the regression line to the scattergram
Regression for estimation
The coefficient of determination in regression
Dealing with curved relationships
How we can 'straighten up' curved relationships?
Advice on using regression analysis
Comparing Averages
Introduction
Matched and unmatched observations
The Mann--Whitney U-test for unmatched samples
Advice on using the Mann--Whitney U-test
More than two samples--the Kruskal--Wallace test
Advice on using the Kruskal--Wallace test
The Wilcoxon test for matched pairs
Advice on using the Wilcoxon test for matched pairs
Comparing means--parametric tests
The z-test for comparing the means of two large samples
The t-test for comparing the means of two small samples
The t-test for matched pairs
Advice on comparing means
Analysis of Variance--Anova
Why do we need ANOVA?
How ANOVA works
Procedure for computing ANOVA
The Tukey test
Further applications of ANOVA
Advice on using ANOVA
Appendices
Table of random numbers
t-distribution
x[superscript 2]-distribution
Critical values of Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient
Critical values of the product moment correlation coefficient
Mann--Whitney U-test values (two-tailed test)
Critical values of T in the Wilcoxon test for matched pairs
F-distribution
Tukey test
Symbols
Leicestershire ECT study data
How large should our samples be?
Bibliography
Index

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