Understanding Motivation and Emotion

ISBN-10: 0471456195
ISBN-13: 9780471456193
Edition: 4th 2005 (Revised)
List price: $152.95
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Description: Gain a greater understanding of motivation, where it comes from, how and why it changes over time, and how motivation can be increased and its quality enhanced. Learn how to apply the principles of motivation in such settings as schools, the  More...

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Book details

List price: $152.95
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/31/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 576
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.2
Language: English

Gain a greater understanding of motivation, where it comes from, how and why it changes over time, and how motivation can be increased and its quality enhanced. Learn how to apply the principles of motivation in such settings as schools, the workplace, the athletic field, counseling, and one's own personal strivings. Features: Comprehensive coverage: all aspects of motivation study, including biological, cognitive, social, etc. Practical perspective on motivation study: numerous how-to applications that show how to motivate yourself and others. Clear and concise writing style: translates the research in ways that are easy to understand.

Preface
Introduction
Two Perennial Questions
What Causes Behavior?
Why Does Behavior Vary in Its Intensity?
Subject Matter
Internal Motives
External Events
Expressions of Motivation
Behavior
Physiology
Self?Report
Themes in the Study of Motivation
Motivation Benefits Adaptation
Motives Direct Attention
Motives Vary Over Time and Influence the Stream of Behavior
Types of Motivation Exist
Motivation Includes Both Approach and Avoidance Tendencies
Motivation Study Reveals What People Want
To Flourish, Motivation Needs Supportive Conditions
There Is Nothing So Practical As a Good Theory
Putting It All Together:
A Framework to Understand the Study of Motivation
Summary
Motivation in Historical and Contemporary Perspective
Philosophical Origins of Motivational Concepts
Will: The First Grand Theory
Instinct: The Second Grand Theory
Drive: The Third Grand Theory
Freud's Drive Theory
Hull's Drive Theory
Decline of Drive Theory
Post?Drive Theory Years
Rise of the Mini?Theories
Active Nature of the Person
Cognitive Revolution
Applied, Socially Relevant Research
Contemporary Mini-Theories Era
The 1990s Return of Motivation Study
Conclusion
Summary
Readings for Further Study
The Motivated and Emotional Brain
The Motivated and Emotional Brain
Three Principles.Specific brain structures generate specific motivational and emotional states.
2. Biochemical agents stimulate brain structures
3. Day-to-day events stir biochemical agents into action
Looking Inside the Brain
Brain-Generated Approach vs. Avoidance
Hypothalamus
Medial Forebrain Bundle
Amygdala
Septo-Hippocampal Circuit
Reticular Formation
Prefrontal Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
Neurotransmitter Pathways in the Brain
Dopamine
Dopamine Release and the Anticipation of Reward
Biology of Reward
Dopamine and Motivated Action
The World in Which the Brain Lives
Motivation Cannot Be Separated from the Social Context in which It Is Embedded
We Are Not Always Consciously Aware of the Motivational Basis of our Behavior
Conclusion
Summary
Readings for Further Study
Needs.
Physiological Needs
Need
Fundamentals of Regulation
Physiological Need
Psychological Drive
Homeostasis
Negative Feedback
Multiple Inputs/Multiple Outputs
Intra?Organismic Mechanisms
Extra?Organismic Mechanisms
Thirst
Physiological Regulation
Thirst activation
Third satiety
Hypothalamus and liver
Environmental Influences
Hunger
Short-Term Appetite
Long-Term Energy Balance
Environmental Influences
Restraint-release Situations
Cognitively-regulated eating style
Weight gain and obesity
Sex
Physiological Regulation
Facial Metrics
Sexual Scripts
Sexual Orientation
Evolutionary Basis of Sexual Motivation
Failures to Self?Regulate Physiological Needs
Summary
Readings for Further Study.
Psychological Needs
Psychological Needs
Need Structure
Organismic Approach to Motivation
Person-environment dialectic
Organismic psychological needs
Autonomy
Supporting Autonomy
Nurtures inner motivational resources
Relies on informational language
Promotes valuing
Acknowledges and accepts negative affect
Moment-to-Moment Autonomy Support
Benefits of an Autonomy?Supportive Motivating Style
Two Illustrations
Competence
Involving Competence
Optimal challenge and flow
Interdependency between challenge and feedback
Failure tolerance
Structure
Supporting Competence
Positive feedback
Pleasure of optimal challenge and positive feedback
Relatedness
Involving Relatedness: Interaction With Others
Satisfying Relatedness: Perception of a Social Bond
Communal and exchange relationships
Internalization
Putting It All Together: Social Contexts That Involve and Satisfy
Psychological Needs
Engagement
What Makes for a Good Day?
Vitality
Summary
Readings for Further Study
Intrinsic Motivation and Types of Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations
Intrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic Motivation
Types of Extrinsic Motivation
Incentives and Consequences
Incentives
What Is a Reinforcer?
Consequences
Positive reinforcers
Negative reinforcers
Punishers
Does punishment work?
Hidden Costs of Reward
Expected and Tangible Rewards
Implications
Benefits of Incentives and Rewards
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Two Examples of Controlling and Informational Events
Praise
Competition
Self?Determination Theory
Types of Extrinsic Motivation
External regulation
Introjected regulation
Identified regulation
Integrated regulation
Benefits of Facilitating Intrinsic Motivation
Persistence
Creativity
Conceptual understanding/High quality learning
Optimal functioning and well-being
Putting It All Together: Motivating Others on Uninteresting Activities
Summary
Readings for Further Study
Social Needs
Acquired Needs
Quasi?Needs
Social Needs
How Social Needs Motivate Behavior
Achievement
Origins of the Need for Achievement
Socialization influences
Cognitive influences
Developmental influences
Atkinson's Model
Tendency to approach success
Tendency to avoid failure
Combined approach and avoidance tendencies
Achievement for the future
Dynamics?of?Action Model
Conditions That Involve and Satisfy the Need for Achievement
Moderately difficult tasks
Competition
Entrepreneurship
Achievement Goals
Integrating Classical and Contemporary Approaches to
Achievement Motivation
Avoidance Motivation and Well-Being
Implicit Theories
Different implicit theories mean differentachievementgoals
Meaning of effort
Affiliation and Intimacy
Conditions That Involve the Affiliation and Intimacy Needs
Fear and anxiety
Development of interpersonal relationships
Maintaining interpersonal networks
Satisfying the affiliation and intimacy needs
Power
Conditions That Involve and Satisfy the Need for Power
Leadership and relationships
Aggressiveness
Influential occupations
Prestige possessions
Leadership Motive Pattern
Effectiveness of U.S. presidents
Summary
Readings for Further Study
Cognitions
Goals
Cognitive Perspective on Motivation
Plans
Corrective Motivation
Discrepancy
Two Types of Discrepancy
Goals
Performance
Goal difficulty
Goal specificity
Difficult, Specific Goals Enhance Performance
Feedback
Goal Acceptance
Criticisms
Long-Term Goal Setting
Personal Strivings
Personal growth and subjective well-being
Implementation Intentions
Mental Simulations: Focusing on Action
Formulating Implementation Intentions
Goal Pursuit: Getting Started
Goal Pursuit: Persisting and Finishing
Self-Regulation
Developing More Competent Self-Regulation.
Summary
Readings for Further Study
Personal Control Beliefs
Motivation to Exercise Personal Control
Two Kinds of Expectancy
Self-Efficacy
Sources of Self-Efficacy
Personal behavior history
Vicarious experience
Verbal persuasion
Physiological state
Self-Efficacy Effects on Behavior
Choice: Selection of activities and environments
Effort and persistence
Thinking and decision-making
Emotionality
Empowerment
Empowering People: Mastery Modeling Program
Personal Control Beliefs
Mastery Versus Helpless Motivational Orientations.
Learned Helplessness
Learning Helplessness
Application to Humans
Components
Contingency
Cognition
Behavior
Effects of Helplessness
Motivational deficits
Learning deficits
Emotional deficits
Helplessness and Depression
Explanatory Style
Pessimistic explanatory style
Optimistic explanatory style
Criticisms and Alternative Explanations
Reactance Theory
Reactance and Helplessness
Putting It All Together: Hope
Summary
Readings for Further Study
Chapter 10.The Self and Its Strivings
The Self
The Problem with Self-Esteem
Self-Concept
Self-Schemas
Motivational Properties of Self-Schemas
Consistent Self
Possible Selves
Cognitive Dissonance
Dissonance-Arousing Situations
Choice
Insufficient justification
Effort justification
New information
Motivational Processes Underlying Cognitive Dissonance
Self-Perception Theory
Identity
Roles
Affect Control Theory
Energy and Direction
Identity-confirming behaviors
Identity-restoring behaviors
Why People Self-Verify
Agency
Self as Action and Development from Within
Differentiation and integration
Internalization and the integrating self
Self-Concordance
Summary
Readings for Further Study
Emotions
Nature of Emotion: Five Perennial Questions
What Is an Emotion?
Relationship Between Emotion and Motivation
Emotion as motivation
Emotion as a readout system
What Causes an Emotion?
Biology and Cognition
Biological perspective
Cognitive perspective
Two-Systems View
Chicken-and-Egg Problem
Comprehensive Biology-Cognition Model
How Many Emotions Are There?
Biological Perspective
Cognitive Perspective
Reconciliation of the Numbers Issue
Basic Emotions
Fear
Anger
Disgust
Sadness
Threat and harm
Joy
Interest
Motive involvement and satisfaction.
What Good Are the Emotions?
Coping Functions
Social Functions
Why We Have Emotions
What Is the Difference between Emotion and Mood?
Everyday Mood
Positive Affect
Conditions that make us feel good
Benefits of feeling good
Summary.
Readings for Further Study
Aspects of Emotion
Biological Aspects of Emotion
James-Lange Theory
Contemporary Perspective
Specific neural circuits
Neural activation
Differential Emotions Theory
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Facial musculature
Test of the facial feedback hypothesis
Are facial expressions of emotion universal across cultures?
Can we voluntarily control our emotions?
Cognitive Aspects of Emotion
Appraisal
From perception to appraisal
From appraisal to emotion.
From felt emotion to action
Complex Appraisal
Primary appraisal
Secondary appraisal
Appraisal model of emotion
Motivation
Appraisal Process
Emotion differentiation
Emotion Knowledge
Attributions
Social and Cultural Aspects of Emotion
Social Interaction
Emotional Socialization
Managing Emotions
Inferring Identities from Emotional Displays.
Summary
Readings for Further Study
Individual Differences
Personality Characteristics
Happiness
Extraversion and Happiness
Neuroticism and Suffering
Extraverts Are Generally Happy, Neurotics Are Generally Unhappy
Arousal
Performance and Emotion
Insufficient Stimulation and Underarousal
Excessive Stimulation and Overarousal
Credibility of the Inverted-U Hypothesis
Sensation Seeking
Search for new experiences
Risk taking
Biological basis
Affect Intensity.
Control
Perceived Control
Self-Confirming Cycles of High and Low Engagement = Desire for Control
Establishing control
Losing control.
Summary.
Readings for Further Study
Unconscious Motivation
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Psychoanalytic Becomes Psychodynamic
Dual-Instinct Theory
Drive or Wish?
Contemporary Psychodynamic Theory
The Unconscious
Freudian Unconscious
Non-Freudian Unconscious.
Psychodynamics
Repression
Suppression
Do the Id and Ego Actually Exist?
Ego Psychology
Ego Development
Ego Defense
Ego Effectance.
Object Relations Theory
Criticisms.
Summary.
Readings for Further Study
Growth Motivation and Positive Psychology
Holism and Positive Psychology
Holism
Positive Psychology
Self-Actualization
Hierarchy of Human Needs
Deficiency needs
Growth needs
Research on the need hierarchy
Encouraging Growth
Actualizing Tendency
Emergence of the Self
Conditions of Worth
Congruence
Fully Functioning Individual
Causality Orientations
Growth-Seeking Versus Validation-Seeking
How Relationships Support the Actualizing Tendency
Helping Others
Freedom to Learn
Self-Definition and Social Definition
The Problem of Evil
Positive Psychology and Mental Health
Optimism
Meaning
Criticisms
Summary
Readings for Further Study
Conclusion
Conclusion
Understanding and Applying Motivation
Explaining Motivation: Why We Do What We Do
Predicting Motivation: Identifying Antecedents
Applying Motivation: Solving Problems
Motivating Self and Others
Motivating Self
Motivating Others
Feedback on How the Effort to Motivate Self and Others Is Going
Designing Motivational Interventions
Four Case Studies
Four Success Stories
Attaining personal goals
Motivating students
Suppressing hunger, reversing obesity
Autonomy-supportive parenting
References
Name Index
Subject Index
Credits

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