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Introduction | |

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Some Characteristics of Fluids | |

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Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity, and Units | |

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Systems of Units | |

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Analysis of Fluid Behavior | |

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Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight | |

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Density | |

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Specific Weight | |

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Specific Gravity | |

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Ideal Gas Law | |

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Viscosity | |

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Compressibility of Fluids | |

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Bulk Modulus | |

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Compression and Expansion of Gases | |

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Speed of Sound | |

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Vapor Pressure | |

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Surface Tension | |

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Chapter Summary and Study Guide Problems | |

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Fluid Statics | |

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Pressure at a Point | |

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Basic Equation for Pressure Field | |

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Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest | |

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Incompressible Fluid | |

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Compressible Fluid | |

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Standard Atmosphere | |

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Measurement of Pressure | |

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Manometry | |

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Piezometer Tube | |

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U-Tube Manometer | |

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Inclined-Tube Manometer | |

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Mechanical and Electronic Pressure Measuring Devices | |

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Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface | |

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Pressure Prism | |

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Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface | |

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Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability | |

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Archimedes' Principle | |

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Stability | |

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Pressure Variation in a Fluid with Rigid-Body Motion | |

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Chapter Summary and Study Guide | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Elementary Fluid Dynamics-The Bernoulli Equation | |

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Newton's Second Law | |

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F = ma Along a Streamline | |

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F = ma Normal to a Streamline | |

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Physical Interpretation | |

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Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure | |

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Examples of Use of the Bernoulli Equation | |

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Free Jets | |

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Confined Flows | |

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Flowrate Measurement | |

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The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line | |

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Restrictions on the Use of the Bernoulli Equation | |

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Chapter Summary and Study Guide | |

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Problems | |

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Fluid Kinematics | |

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The Velocity Field | |

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Eulerian and Lagrangian Flow Descriptions | |

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One-, Two-, and Three- Dimensional Flows | |

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Steady and Unsteady Flows | |

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Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines | |

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The Acceleration Field | |

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The Material Derivative | |

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Unsteady Effects | |

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Convective Effects | |

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Streamline Coordinates | |

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Control Volume and System Representations | |

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The Reynolds Transport Theorem | |

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Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem | |

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Selection of a Control Volume | |

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Chapter Summary and Study Guide | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Finite Control Volume Analysis | |

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Conservation of Mass-The Continuity Equation | |

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Derivation of the Continuity Equation | |

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Fixed, Nondeforming Control Volume | |

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Moving, Nondeforming Control Volume | |

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Newton's Second Law-The Linear Momentum and Moment-of-Momentum Equations | |

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Derivation of the Linear Momentum Equation | |

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Application of the Linear Momentum Equation | |

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Derivation of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation | |

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Application of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation | |

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First Law of Thermodynamics-The Energy Equation | |

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Derivation of the Energy Equation | |

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Application of the Energy Equation | |

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Comparison of the Energy Equation with the Bernoulli Equation | |

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Application of the Energy Equation to Nonuniform Flows | |

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Chapter Summary and Study Guide | |

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Problems | |

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Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow | |

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Fluid Element Kinematics | |

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Velocity and Acceleration Fields Revisited | |

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Linear Motion and Deformation | |

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Angular Motion and Deformation | |

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Conservation of Mass | |

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Differential Form of Continuity Equation | |

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Cylindrical Polar Coordinates | |

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The Stream Function | |

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Conservation of Linear Momentum | |

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Description of Forces Acting on Differential Element | |

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Equations of Motion | |

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Inviscid Flow | |

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Euler's Equations of Motion | |

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The Bernoulli Equation | |

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Irrotational Flow | |

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The Bernoulli Equation for Irrotational Flow | |

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The Velocity Potential | |

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Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows | |

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Uniform Flow | |

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Source and Sink | |

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Vortex | |

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Doublet | |

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Superposition of Basic, Plane Potential Flows | |

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Source in a Uniform Stream-Half-Body | |

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Flow around a Circular Cylinder | |

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Other Aspects of Potential Flow Analysis | |

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Viscous Flow | |

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Stress-Deformation Relationships | |

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The Navier-Stokes Equations | |

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Some Simple Solutions for Viscous, Incompressible Fluids | |

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Steady, Laminar Flow between Fixed Parallel Plates | |

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Couette Flow | |

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Steady, Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes | |

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Other Aspects of Differential Analysis | |

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Chapter Summary and Study Guide | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Similitude, Dimensional Analysis, and Modeling | |

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Dimensional Analysis | |

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Buckingham Pi Theorem | |

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Determination of Pi Terms | |

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Some Additional Comments about Dimensional Analysis | |

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Selection of Variables | |

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Determination of Reference Dimensions | |

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Uniqueness of Pi Terms | |

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Determination of Pi Terms by Inspection | |

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Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics | |

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Correlation of Experimental Data | |

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Problems with One Pi Term | |

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Problems with Two or More Pi Terms | |

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Modeling and Similitude | |

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Theory of Models | |

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Model Scales | |

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Distorted Models | |

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Some Typical Model Studies | |

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Flow through Closed Conduits | |

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Flow around Immersed Bodies | |

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Flow with a Free Surface | |

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Chapter Summary and Study Guide | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Viscous Flow in Pipes | |

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General Characteristics of Pipe Flow | |

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Laminar or Turbulent Flow | |

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Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow | |

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Fully Developed Laminar Flow | |

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From F = ma Applied to a Fluid Element | |

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From the Navier-Stokes Equations | |

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Fully Developed Turbulent Flow | |

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Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow | |

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Turbulent Shear Stress | |

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Turbulent Velocity Profile | |

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Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow | |

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Major Losses | |

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Minor Losses | |

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Noncircular Conduits | |

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Pipe Flow Examples | |

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Single Pipes | |

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Multiple Pipe Systems | |

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Pipe Flowrate Measurement | |

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Chapter Summary and Study Guide | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Flow Over Immersed Bodies | |

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General External Flow Characteristics | |

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Lift and Drag Concepts | |

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Characteristics of Flow Past an Object | |

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Boundary Layer Characteristics | |

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Boundary Layer Structure and Thickness on a Flat Plate | |

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Prandt1/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution | |

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Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation for a Flat Plate | |

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Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow | |

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Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow | |

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Effects of Pressure Gradient | |

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Drag | |

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Friction Drag | |

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Pressure Drag | |

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Drag Coefficient Data and Examples | |

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Lift | |

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Surface Pressure Distribution | |

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Circulation | |

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Chapter Summary and Study Guide | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Open-Channel Flow | |

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General Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow | |

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Surface Waves | |

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Wave Speed | |

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Froude Number Effects | |

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Energy Considerations | |

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Specific Energy | |

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Uniform Depth Channel Flow | |

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Uniform Flow Approximations | |

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The Chezy and Manning Equations | |

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Uniform Depth Examples | |

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Gradually Varied Flow | |

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Rapidly Varied Flow | |

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The Hydraulic Jump | |

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Sharp-Crested Weirs | |

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Broad-Crested Weirs | |

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Underflow Gates | |

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Chapter Summary and Study Guide | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Turbomachines | |

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Introduction | |

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Basic Energy Considerations | |

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Basic Angular Momentum Considerations | |

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The Centrifugal Pump | |

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Theoretical Considerations | |

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Pump Performance Characteristics | |

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System Characteristics and Pump Selection | |

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Dimensionless Parameters and Similarity Laws | |

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Specific Speed | |

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Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps | |

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Turbines | |

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Impulse Turbines | |

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Reaction Turbines | |

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Compressible Flow Turbomachines | |

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Chapter Summary and Study Guide | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Computational Fluid Dynamics and Flowlab | |

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Physical Properties of Fluids | |

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Properties of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere | |

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Reynolds Transport Theorem | |

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General Reynolds Transport Theorem | |

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General Control Volume Equations | |

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Comprehensive Table of Conversion Factors | |

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Online Appendix List | |

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Video Library | |

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Review Problems | |

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Laboratory Problems | |

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CFD Driven Cavity Example | |

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Flowlab Tutorial and User's Guide | |

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Flowlab Problems | |

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Answers | |

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Index | |

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Index of Fluids Phenomena Videos | |