Bionanotechnology Lessons from Nature

ISBN-10: 047141719X

ISBN-13: 9780471417194

Edition: 2004

List price: $155.95 Buy it from $3.00
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Description:

The author offers an introduction to bionanotechnology, which merges the physical & biological sciences. This book includes discussion of the basic structural, nanotechnology & system engineering principles as well as an overview of essential concepts & methods in biotechnology.
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Book details

List price: $155.95
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/29/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 350
Size: 8.00" wide x 9.75" long x 2.00" tall
Weight: 1.694
Language: English

The Quest for Nanotechnology
Biotechnology and the Two-Week Revolution
From Biotechnology to Bionanotechnology
What is Bionanotechnology?
Bionanomachines in Action
The Unfamiliar World of Bionanomachines
Gravity and inertia are negligible at the nanoscale
Nanomachines show atomic granularity
Thermal motion is a significant force at the nanoscale
Bionanomachines require a water environment
Modern Biomaterials
Most natural bionanomachines are composed of protein
Nucleic acids carry information
Lipids are used for infrastructure
Polysaccharides are used in specialized structural roles
The Legacy of Evolution
Evolution has placed significant limitations on the properties of natural biomolecules
Guided Tour of Natural Bionanomachinery
Biomolecular Design and Biotechnology
Recombinant DNA Technology
DNA may be engineered with commercially available enzymes
Site-directed mutagenesis makes specific changes in the genome
Fusion proteins combine two functions
Monoclonal Antibodies
Biomolecular Structure Determination
X-ray crystallography provides atomic structures
NMR spectroscopy may be used to derive atomic structures
Electron microscopy reveals molecular morphology
Atomic force microscopy probes the surface of biomolecules
Molecular Modeling
Bionanomachines are visualized with computer graphics
Computer modeling is used to predict biomolecular structure and function
The protein folding problem
Docking simulations predict the modes of biomolecular interaction
New functionalities are developed with computer-assisted molecular design
Structural Principles of Bionanotechnology
Natural Bionanomachinery is Designed for a Specific Environment
A Hierarchical Strategy Allows Construction of Nanomachines
The Raw Materials: Biomolecular Structure and Stability
Molecules are composed of atoms linked by covalent bonds
Dispersion and repulsion forces act at close range
Hydrogen bonds provide stability and specificity
Electrostatic interactions are formed between charged atoms
The hydrophobic effect stabilizes biomolecules in water
Protein Folding
Not all protein sequences adopt stable structures
Globular proteins have a hierarchical structure
Stable globular structure requires a combination of design strategies
Chaperones provide the optimal environment for folding
Rigidity can make proteins more stable at high temperatures
Many proteins make use of disorder
Self-Assembly
Symmetry allows self-assembly of stable complexes with defined size
Quasisymmetry is used to build assemblies too large for perfect symmetry
Crowded conditions promote self-assembly
Self-Organization
Lipids self-organize into bilayers
Lipid bilayers are fluid
Proteins may be designed to self-organize with lipid bilayers
Molecular Recognition
Crane principles for molecular recognition
Atomicity limits the tolerance of combining sites
Flexibility
Biomolecules show flexibility at all levels
Flexibility poses great challenges for the design of bionanomachines
Functional Principles of Bionanotechnology
Information-Driven Nanoassembly
Nucleic acids carry genetic information
Ribosomes construct proteins
Information is stored in very compact form
Energetics
Chemical energy is transferred by carrier molecules
Light is captured with specialized small molecules
Protein pathways transfer single electrons
Electrical conduction and charge transfer have been observed in DNA
Electrochemical gradients are created across membranes
Chemical Transformation
Enzymes reduce the entropy of a chemical reaction
Enzymes create environments that stabilize transition states
Enzymes use chemical tools to perform a reaction
Regulation
Protein activity may be regulated through allosteric motions
Protein action may be regulated by covalent modification
Biomaterials
Helical assembly of subunits forms filaments and fibrils
Microscale infrastructure is built from fibrous components
Minerals are combined with biomaterials for special applications
Elastic proteins use disordered chains
Cells make specific and general adhesives
Biomolecular Motors
ATP powers linear motors
ATP synthase and flagellar motors are rotary motors
Brownian ratchets rectify random thermal motions
Traffic Across Membranes
Potassium channels use a selectivity filter
ABC transporters use a flip-flop mechanism
Bacteriorhodopsin uses light to pump protons
Biomolecular Sensing
Smell and taste detect specific molecules
Light is sensed by monitoring light-sensitive motions in retinal
Mechanosensory receptors sense motion across a membrane
Bacteria sense chemical gradients by rectification of random motion
Self-Replication
Cells are autonomous self-replicators
The basic design of cells is shaped by the processes of evolution
Machine-Phase Bionanotechnology
Muscle sarcomeres
Nerves
Bionanotechnology Today
Basic Capabilities
Natural proteins may be simplified
Proteins are being designed from scratch
Proteins may be constructed with nonnatural amino acids
Peptide nucleic acids provide a stable alternative to DNA and RNA
Nanomedicine Today
Computer-aided drug design has produced effective anti-AIDS drugs
Immunotoxins are targeted cell killers
Drugs may be delivered with liposomes
Artificial blood saves lives
Gene therapy will correct genetic defects
General medicine is changing into personalized medicine
Self-Assembly at Many Scales
Self-assembling DNA scaffolds have been constructed
Cyclic peptides form nanotubes
Fusion proteins self-assemble into extended structures
Small organic molecules self-assemble into large structures
Larger objects may be self-assembled
Harnessing Molecular Motors
ATP synthase is used as a rotary motor
Molecular machines have been built of DNA
DNA Computers
The first DNA computer solved a traveling salesman problem
Satisfiability problems are solved by DNA computing
A Turing machine has been built with DNA
Molecular Design Using Biological Selection
Antibodies may be turned into enzymes
Peptides may be screened with bacteriophage display libraries
Nucleic acids with novel functions may be selected
Functional bionanomachines are surprisingly common
Artificial Life
Artificial protocells reproduce by budding
Self-replicating molecules are an elusive goal
ATP is made with an artificial photosynthetic liposome
Poliovirus has been created with only a genetic blueprint
Hybrid Materials
Nanoscale conductive metal wires may be constructed with DNA
Patterned aggregates of gold nanoparticles are formed with DNA
DNA flexes a sensitive mechanical lever
Researchers are harnessing biomineralization
Biosensors
Antibodies are widely used as biosensors
Biosensors detect glucose levels for management of diabetes
Engineered nanopores detect specific DNA sequences
The Future of Bionanotechnology
A Timetable for Bionanotechnology
Lessons for Molecular Nanotechnology
Three Case Studies
Case study: Nanotube synthase
Case study: A general nanoscale assembler
Case study: Nanosurveillance
Ethical Considerations
Respect for life
Potential dangers
Final thoughts
Literature
Sources
Index
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