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Measured Thermodynamic Properties And Other Basic Concepts | |

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Learning Objectives | |

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Thermodynamics | |

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Preliminary Concepts-The Language of Thermo | |

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Measured Thermodynamic Properties | |

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Volume (Extensive or Intensive) | |

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Temperature (intensive) | |

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Pressure (intensive) | |

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Equilibrium | |

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Independent and Dependent Thermodynamic Properties | |

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The PvT Surface and Its Projections for Pure Substances | |

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Thermodynamic Property Tables | |

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The Ideal Gas | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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The First Law Of Thermodynamics | |

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Learning Objectives | |

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The First Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Forms of Energy | |

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Work and Heat: Transfer of Energy Between the System and the Surroundings | |

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Construction of Hypothetical Paths | |

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Reversible and Irreversible Processes | |

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The First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems | |

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Integral Balances | |

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Differential Balances | |

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The First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems | |

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Thermochemical Data for U and H | |

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Heat Capacity: c[subscript v] and c[subscript P] | |

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Latent Heats | |

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Enthalpy of Reactions | |

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Reversible Processes in Closed Systems | |

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Reversible, Isothermal Expansion (Compression) | |

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Adiabatic Expansion (Compression) with Constant Heat Capacity | |

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Summary | |

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Open-System Energy Balances on Process Equipment | |

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Thermodynamic Cycles and the Carnot Cycle | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Entropy And The Second Law Of Thermodynamic | |

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Learning Objectives | |

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Directionality of Processes/Spontaneity | |

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Reversible and Irreversible Processes (Revisited) and Their Relationship to Directionality | |

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Entropy, the Thermodynamic Property | |

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The Second Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Other Common Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics | |

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The Second Law of Thermodynamics for Closed and Open Systems | |

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Calculation of [Delta]s for Closed Systems | |

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Calculation of [Delta]s for an Open Systems | |

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Calculation of [Delta]s for an Ideal Gas | |

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The Mechanical Energy Balance and the Bernoulli Equation | |

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Vapor-Compression Power and Refrigeration Cycles | |

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The Rankine Cycle | |

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The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle | |

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Molecular View of Entropy | |

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Maximizing Molecular Configurations over Space | |

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Maximizing Molecular Configurations over Energy | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Equations Of State And Intermolecular Forces | |

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Learning Objectives | |

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Introduction | |

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Motivation | |

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The Ideal Gas | |

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Intermolecular Forces | |

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Internal (Molecular) Energy | |

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Attractive Forces | |

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Intermolecular Potential Functions and Repulsive Forces | |

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Principle of Corresponding States | |

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Chemical Forces | |

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Equations of State | |

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The Van Der Waals Equation of State | |

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Cubic Equations of State | |

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The Virial Equation of State | |

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Equations of State for Liquids and Solids | |

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Generalized Compressibility Charts | |

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Determination of Parameters for Mixtures | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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The Thermodynamic Web | |

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Learning Objectives | |

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Types of Thermodynamic Properties | |

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Thermodynamic Property Relationships | |

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Dependent and Independent Properties | |

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Fundamental Property Relations | |

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Maxwell Relations | |

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Other Useful Mathematical Relations | |

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Using the Thermodynamic Web to Access Reported Data | |

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Calculation of [Delta]s, [Delta]u, and [Delta]h Using Equations of State | |

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Relation of ds in Terms of Independent Variables T and v and Independent Variables T and P | |

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Relation of du in Terms of Independent Variables T and v | |

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Relation of dh in Terms of Independent Variables T and P | |

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Departure Functions | |

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Joule-Thomson Expansion and Liquefication | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Phase Equilibria I: Problem Formulation | |

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Learning Objectives | |

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Introduction | |

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Pure Species Phase Equilibrium | |

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Gibbs Energy as a Criterion for Chemical Equilibrium | |

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Roles of Energy and Entropy in Phase Equilibria | |

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The Relationship Between Saturation Pressure and Temperature: The Clapeyron Equation | |

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Pure Component Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium: The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation | |

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Thermodynamics of Mixtures | |

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Introduction | |

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Partial Molar Properties | |

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The Gibbs-Duhem Equation | |

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Summary of the Different Types of Thermodynamic Properties | |

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Property Changes of Mixing | |

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Determination of Partial Molar Properties | |

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Relations Among Partial Molar Quantities | |

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Multicomponent Phase Equilibria | |

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The Chemical Potential-The Criteria for Chemical Equilibrium | |

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Temperature and Pressure Dependence of [mu subscript i] | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Phase Equilibria II: Fugacity | |

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Learning Objectives | |

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Introduction | |

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The Fugacity | |

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Definition of Fugacity | |

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Other Forms of Fugacity | |

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Criteria for Chemical Equilibria in Terms of Fugacity | |

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Fugacity in the Vapor Phase | |

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Fugacity and Fugacity Coefficient of Pure Gases | |

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Fugacity and Fugacity Coefficient of Species i in a Gas Mixture | |

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The Lewis Fugacity Rule | |

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Property Changes of Mixing for Ideal Gases | |

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Fugacity in the Liquid Phase | |

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Reference States for the Liquid Phase | |

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Thermodynamic Relations Between [gamma subscript i] | |

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Models for [gamma subscript i] Using g[superscript E] | |

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Equation of State Approach to the Liquid Phase | |

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Fugacity in the Solid Phase | |

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Pure Solids | |

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Solid Solutions | |

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Interstitials and Vacancies in Crystals | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Phase Equilibria III: Phase Diagrams | |

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Learning Objectives | |

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Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) | |

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Raoult's Law (Ideal Gas and Ideal Solution) | |

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Nonideal Liquids | |

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Azeotropes | |

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Fitting Activity Coefficient Models with VLE Data | |

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Solubility of Gases in Liquids | |

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Liquid([alpha])-Liquid([beta]) Equilibrium: LLE | |

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Vapor-Liquid([alpha])-Liquid([beta]) Equilibrium: VLLE | |

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Solid-Liquid and Solid-Solid Equilibrium: SLE and SSE | |

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Pure Solids | |

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Solid Solutions | |

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Colligative Properties | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Chemical Reaction Equilibria | |

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Learning Objectives | |

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Introduction | |

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Chemical Reaction and Gibbs Energy | |

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Equilibrium for a Single Reaction | |

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Calculation of K from Thermochemical Data | |

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Calculation of K from Gibbs Energy of Formation | |

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The Temperature Dependence of K | |

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Relationship Between the Equilibrium Constant and the Concentrations of Reacting Species | |

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The Equilibrium Constant for a Gas-Phase Reaction | |

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The Equilibrium Constant for a Liquid-Phase (or Solid-Phase) Reaction | |

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The Equilibrium Constant for a Heterogeneous Reaction | |

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Equilibrium in Electrochemical Systems | |

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Multiple Reactions | |

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Extent of Reaction and Equilibrium Constant for R Reactions | |

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Gibbs Phase Rule for Chemically Reacting Systems | |

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Solution of Multiple Reaction Equilibria by Minimization of Gibbs Energy | |

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Reaction Equilibria of Point Defects in Crystalline Solids | |

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Atomic Defects | |

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Electronic Defects | |

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Effect of Gas Partial Pressure on Defect Concentrations | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Physical Property Data | |

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Critical Constants, Acentric Factors, and Antoine Coefficients | |

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Heat Capacity Data | |

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Enthalpy and Gibbs Energy of Formation at 298 K and 1 bar | |

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Steam Tables | |

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Saturated Water: Temperature Table | |

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Saturated Water: Pressure Table | |

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Saturated Water: Solid-Vapor | |

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Superheated Water Vapor | |

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Subcooled Liquid Water | |

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Lee-Kesler Generalized Correlation Tables | |

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Values for z[superscript (0)] | |

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Values for z[superscript (1)] | |

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Values for [characters not reproducible] | |

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Values for [characters not reproducible] | |

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Values for [characters not reproducible] | |

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Values for [characters not reproducible] | |

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Values for log[phi superscript (0)] | |

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Values for log [phi superscript (1)] | |

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Unit Systems | |

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Common Dimensions Used in Termodynamics and Their Associated Units | |

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Conversion Between Gaussian and SI Units | |

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ThermoSolver Software | |

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Software Description | |

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Corresponding States using the Lee-Kesler Equation of State | |

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References | |

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Sources of Thermodynamic Data | |

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Textbooks and Monographs | |

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Index | |