Vibration Analysis for Electronic Equipment

ISBN-10: 047137685X

ISBN-13: 9780471376859

Edition: 3rd 2000 (Revised)

List price: $238.00 Buy it from $225.62
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Description:

This text book provide a guide to quick methods for designing electronic equipment that must be designed to withstand severe vibration and shock. It explains how to predict the operational life of electronic equipment with sample problems.
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Book details

List price: $238.00
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 7/11/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 440
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.628
Language: English

Preface
List of Symbols
Introduction
Vibration Sources
Definitions
Vibration Representation
Degrees of Freedom
Vibration Modes
Vibration Nodes
Coupled Modes
Fasteners
Electronic Equipment for Airplanes and Missiles
Electronic Equipment for Ships and Submarines
Electronic Equipment for Automobiles, Trucks, and Trains
Electronics for Oil Drilling Equipment
Electronics for Computers, Communication, and Entertainment
Vibrations of Simple Electronic Systems
Single Spring-Mass System Without Damping
Sample Problem--Natural Frequency of a Cantilever Beam
Single-Degree-of-Freedom Torsional Systems
Sample Problem--Natural Frequency of a Torsion System
Springs in Series and Parallel
Sample Problem--Resonant Frequency of a Spring System
Relation of Frequency and Acceleration to Displacement
Sample Problem--Natural Frequency and Stress in a Beam
Forced Vibrations with Viscous Damping
Transmissibility as a Function of Frequency
Sample Problem--Relating the Resonant Frequency to the Dynamic Displacement
Multiple Spring--Mass Systems Without Damping
Sample Problem--Resonant Frequency of a System
Component Lead Wire and Solder Joint Vibration Fatigue Life
Introduction
Vibration Problems with Components Mounted High Above the PCB
Sample Problem--Vibration Fatigue Life in the Wires of a TO-5 Transistor
Vibration Fatigue Life in Solder Joints of a TO-5 Transistor
Recommendations to Fix the Wire Vibration Problem
Dynamic Forces Developed in Transformer Wires During Vibration
Sample Problem--Dynamic Forces and Fatigue Life in Transformer Lead Wires
Relative Displacements Between PCB and Component Produce Lead Wire Strain
Sample Problem--Effects of PCB Displacement on Hybrid Reliability
Beam Structures for Electronic Subassemblies
Natural Frequency of a Uniform Beam
Sample Problem--Natural Frequencies of Beams
Nonuniform Cross Sections
Sample Problem--Natural Frequency of a Box with Nonuniform Sections
Composite Beams
Component Lead Wires as Bents, Frames, and Arcs
Electronic Components Mounted on Circuit Boards
Bent with a Lateral Load--Hinged Ends
Strain Energy--Bent with Hinged Ends
Strain Energy--Bent with Fixed Ends
Strain Energy--Circular Arc with Hinged Ends
Strain Energy--Circular Arc with Fixed Ends
Strain Energy--Circular Arcs for Lead Wire Strain Relief
Sample Problem--Adding an Offset in a Wire to Increase the Fatigue Life
Printed Circuit Boards and Flat Plates
Various Types of Printed Circuit Boards
Changes in Circuit Board Edge Conditions
Estimating the Transmissibility of a Printed Circuit Board
Natural Frequency Using a Trigonometric Series
Natural Frequency Using a Polynomial Series
Sample Problem--Resonant Frequency of a PCB
Natural Frequency Equations Derived Using the Rayleigh Method
Dynamic Stresses in the Circuit Board
Sample Problem--Vibration Stresses in a PCB
Ribs on Printed Circuit Boards
Ribs Fastened to Circuit Boards with Screws
Printed Circuit Boards With Ribs in Two Directions
Proper Use of Ribs to Stiffen Plates and Circuit Boards
Quick Way to Estimate the Required Rib Spacing for Circuit Boards
Natural Frequencies for Different PCB Shapes with Different Supports
Sample Problem--Natural Frequency of a Triangular PCB with Three Point Supports
Octave Rule, Snubbing, and Damping to Increase the PCB Fatigue Life
Dynamic Coupling Between the PCBs and Their Support Structures
Effects of Loose Edge Guides on Plug-in Type PCBs
Description of Dynamic Computer Study for the Octave Rule
The Forward Octave Rule Always Works
The Reverse Octave Rule Must Have Lightweight PCBs
Sample Problem--Vibration Problems with Relays Mounted on PCBs
Proposed Corrective Action for Relays
Using Snubbers to Reduce PCB Displacements and Stresses
Sample Problem--Adding Snubbers to Improve PCB Reliability
Controlling the PCB Transmissibility with Damping
Properties of Material Damping
Constrained Layer Damping with Viscoelastic Materials
Why Stiffening Ribs on PCBs are Often Better than Damping
Problems with PCB Viscoelastic Dampers
Preventing Sinusoidal Vibration Failures in Electronic Equipment
Introduction
Estimating the Vibration Fatigue Life
Sample Problem--Qualification Test for an Electronic System
Electronic Component Lead Wire Strain Relief
Designing PCBs for Sinusoidal Vibration Environments
Sample Problem--Determining Desired PCB Resonant Frequency
How Location and Orientation of Component on PCB Affect Life
How Wedge Clamps Affect the PCB Resonant Frequency
Sample Problem--Resonant Frequency of PCB with Side Wedge Clamps
Effects of Loose PCB Side Edge Guides
Sample Problem--Resonant Frequency of PCB with Loose Edge Guides
Sine Sweep Through a Resonance
Sample Problem--Fatigue Cycles Accumulated During a Sine Sweep
Designing Electronics for Random Vibration
Introduction
Basic Failure Modes in Random Vibration
Characteristics of Random Vibration
Differences Between Sinusoidal and Random Vibrations
Random Vibration Input Curves
Sample Problem--Determining the Input RMS Acceleration Level
Random Vibration Units
Shaped Random Vibration Input Curves
Sample Problem--Input RMS Accelerations for Sloped PSD Curves
Relation Between Decibels and Slope
Integration Method for Obtaining the Area Under a PSD Curve
Finding Points on the PSD Curve
Sample Problem--Finding PSD Values
Using Basic Logarithms to Find Points on the PSD Curve
Probability Distribution Functions
Gaussian or Normal Distribution Curve
Correlating Random Vibration Failures Using the Three-Band Technique
Rayleigh Distribution Function
Response of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom System to Random Vibration
Sample Problem--Estimating the Random Vibration Fatigue Life
How PCBs Respond to Random Vibration
Designing PCBs for Random Vibration Environments
Sample Problem--Finding the Desired PCB Resonant Frequency
Effects of Relative Motion on Component Fatigue Life
Sample Problem--Component Fatigue Life
It's the Input PSD that Counts, Not the Input RMS Acceleration
Connector Wear and Surface Fretting Corrosion
Sample Problem--Determining Approximate Connector Fatigue Life
Multiple-Degree-of-Freedom Systems
Octave Rule for Random Vibration
Sample Problem--Response of Chassis and PCB to Random Vibration
Sample Problem--Dynamic Analysis of an Electronic Chassis
Determining the Number of Positive Zero Crossings
Sample Problem--Determining the Number of Positive Zero Crossings
Acoustic Noise Effects on Electronics
Introduction
Sample Problem--Determining the Sound Pressure Level
Microphonic Effects in Electronic Equipment
Methods for Generating Acoustic Noise Tests
One-Third Octave Bandwidth
Determining the Sound Pressure Spectral Density
Sound Pressure Response to Acoustic Noise Excitation
Sample Problem--Fatigue Life of a Sheet-Metal Panel Exposed to Acoustic Noise
Determining the Sound Acceleration Spectral Density
Sample Problem--Alternate Method of Acoustic Noise Analysis
Designing Electronics for Shock Environments
Introduction
Specifying the Shock Environment
Pulse Shock
Half-Sine Shock Pulse for Zero Rebound and Full Rebound
Sample Problem--Half-Sine Shock-Pulse Drop Test
Response of Electronic Structures to Shock Pulses
Response of a Simple System to Various Shock Pulses
How PCBs Respond to Shock Pulses
Determining the Desired PCB Resonant Frequency for Shock
Sample Problem--Response of a PCB to a Half-Sine Shock Pulse
Response of PCB to Other Shock Pulses
Sample Problem--Shock Response of a Transformer Mounting Bracket
Equivalent Shock Pulse
Sample Problem--Shipping Crate for an Electronic Box
Low Values of the Frequency Ratio R
Sample Problem--Shock Amplification for Low Frequency Ratio R
Shock Isolators
Sample Problem--Heat Developed in an Isolator
Information Required for Shock Isolators
Sample Problem--Selecting a Set of Shock Isolators
Ringing Effects in Systems with Light Damping
How Two-Degree-of-Freedom Systems Respond to Shock
The Octave Rule for Shock
Velocity Shock
Sample Problem--Designing a Cabinet for Velocity Shock
Nonlinear Velocity Shock
Sample Problem--Cushioning Material for a Sensitive Electronic Box
Shock Response Spectrum
How Chassis and PCBs Respond to Shock
Sample Problem--Shock Response Spectrum Analysis for Chassis and PCB
How Pyrotechnic Shock Can Affect Electronic Components
Sample Problem--Resonant Frequency of a Hybrid Die Bond Wire
Design and Analysis of Electronic Boxes
Introduction
Different Types of Mounts
Preliminary Dynamic Analysis
Bolted Covers
Coupled Modes
Dynamic Loads in a Chassis
Bending Stresses in the Chassis
Buckling Stress Ratio for Bending
Torsional Stresses in the Chassis
Buckling Stress Ratio for Shear
Margin of Safety for Buckling
Center-of-Gravity Mount
Simpler Method for Obtaining Dynamic Forces and Stresses on a Chassis
Effects of Manufacturing Methods on the Reliability of Electronics
Introduction
Typical Tolerances in Electronic Components and Lead Wires
Sample Problem--Effects of PCB Tolerances on Frequency and Fatigue Life
Problems Associated with Tolerances on PCB Thickness
Effects of Poor Bonding Methods on Structural Stiffness
Soldering Small Axial Leaded Components on Through-Hole PCBs
Areas Where Poor Manufacturing Methods Have Been Known to Cause Problems
Avionic Integrity Program and Automotive Integrity Program (AVIP)
The Basic Philosophy for Performing an AVIP Analysis
Different Perspectives of Reliability
Vibration Fixtures and Vibration Testing
Vibration Simulation Equipment
Mounting the Vibration Machine
Vibration Test Fixtures
Basic Fixture Design Considerations
Effective Spring Rates for Bolts
Bolt Preload Torque
Sample Problem--Determining Desired Bolt Torque
Rocking Modes and Overturning Moments
Oil-Film Slider Tables
Vibration Fixture Counterweights
A Summary for Good Fixture Design
Suspension Systems
Mechanical Fuses
Distinguishing Bending Modes from Rocking Modes
Push-Bar Couplings
Slider Plate Longitudinal Resonance
Acceleration Force Capability of Shaker
Positioning the Servo-Control Accelerometer
More Accurate Method for Estimating the Transmissibility Q in Structures
Sample Problem--Transmissibility Expected for a Plug-in PCB
Bibration Testing Case Histories
Cross-Coupling Effects in Vibration Test Fixtures
Progressive Vibration Shear Failures in Bolted Structures
Vibration Push-Bar Couplers with Bolts Loaded in Shear
Bolting PCB Centers Together to Improve Their Vibration Fatigue Life
Vibration Failures Caused by Careless Manufacturing Methods
Alleged Vibration Failure that was Really Caused by Dropping a Large Chassis
Methods for Increasing the Vibration and Shock Capability on Existing Systems
Environmental Stress Screening for Electronic Equipment (ESSEE)
Introduction
Environmental Stress Screening Philosophy
Screening Environments
Things an Acceptable Screen Are Expected to Do
Things an Acceptable Screen Are Not Expected to Do
To Screen or Not to Screen, That is the Problem
Preparations Prior to the Start of a Screening Program
Combined Thermal Cycling, Random Vibration, and Electrical Operation
Separate Thermal Cycling, Random Vibration, and Electrical Operation
Importance of the Screening Environment Sequence
How Damage Can Be Developed in a Thermal Cycling Screen
Estimating the Amount of Fatigue Life Used Up in a Random Vibration Screen
Sample Problem--Fatigue Life Used Up in Vibration and Thermal Cycling Screen
Bibliography
Index
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