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Chemical Analysis, What, Who, and Why | |

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Chemical Quantites | |

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Units Involved in the Expression of Amount | |

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The Differentiating Characteristic | |

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Devising a Probe for the Differentiating Characteristic | |

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Anticipating the REsponse to the Probe | |

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Measuring the Response to the Probe | |

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Quantitation | |

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Assessing Errors and Interferences | |

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Detection | |

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Assessing Confidence in the Results | |

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Identification | |

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Identification by Deductive Reasoning | |

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"Analyze This for Me!" | |

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Separation | |

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Single-Step Separation | |

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Separation by Dispersion | |

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Chemical Analysis in Science and Society | |

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Challenges and Rewards | |

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The Evolution of Chemical Analysis | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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The Elements of Measurement | |

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Measurement, Interpretation, and Observation | |

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Measurements and Interpretations | |

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Information from Sets of Measurement Data | |

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Sources of Measurement Numbers | |

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Measurement Qualities | |

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Elements of Measurement Systems | |

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Conversion Devices | |

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Input/Output Relationships | |

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Examples of Measurement Systems | |

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The Analog Thermometer | |

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The Ammeter | |

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The Analog Clock | |

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pH Paper | |

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Characteristics of Scalar Readouts | |

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Linear Scales | |

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Scalar Readout Characteristics | |

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Interpolation Errors | |

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Verniers | |

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Scales in Arcs or Circles | |

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Volume-to-Length Converters | |

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The Graduated Cylinder | |

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Scale Indication by Liquid Level | |

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The Buret | |

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The Volumetric Flask | |

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The Pipet | |

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Effects of Temperature on Volumetric Measurements | |

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Characteristics of Digital Readouts | |

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The Number Register | |

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The Stepwise form of the Transfer Function | |

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Range and Resolution | |

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Measurements Involving ADCs | |

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The Discrete Nature of the Data | |

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Stimulus-Response Measurements | |

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Null Measurements and Conversion Devices | |

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Double-Pan Balance | |

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Null Measurement Characteristics | |

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Null Conversion Devices | |

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The Electronic Analytical Balance | |

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Measurement Accuracy and Precision | |

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Measures of Precision | |

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Confidence Intervals | |

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Significant Figures | |

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Measurement Precision in Data Processing | |

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Comparing Means and Deviations | |

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Comparing the Mean with an Accepted Value | |

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Comparing the Means of Two Data Sets | |

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Limit of Detection | |

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Comparing the Deviations of Two Data Sets | |

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Rejection of Data | |

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Least Squares Method for Linear Plots | |

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The Straight Line | |

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Linear Regression | |

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Precision of the Regression Results | |

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Precision of Values Calculated from the Working Curve | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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Acidity, Activity, and pH | |

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Acids, Bases, and Their Reactions | |

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Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs | |

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Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases | |

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Equilibrium Constants | |

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Acids and Bases in Water | |

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Reactions of Acids with Water | |

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Relationship Between [H subscript 3 O superscript +] and [OH superscript -] in Water | |

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Reactions of Bases with Water | |

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Logarithmic Concentration Expressions | |

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Other Amphiprotic Solvents | |

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Concentrations, Activities, and pH | |

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Chemical Potential | |

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Chemical Activity | |

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Activity Coefficients | |

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Mean Ionic Activities | |

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Activity Coefficients of Neutral Species | |

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Equilibrium Constants | |

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The Equilibrium State | |

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Thermodynamic and Formal Equilibrium Constants | |

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The Effect of Ionic Strength on K'[subscript a] | |

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Using Formal Equilibrium Constants | |

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pH Electrode and the Definition of pH | |

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The pH Electrode | |

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pH Standards | |

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The Definition of pH | |

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The Measurement of pH | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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Analysis by Acid--Base Reactivity | |

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Equilibrium Concentrations | |

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The Fraction of the Conjugate Pair in Each Form | |

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Solving for [H subscript 3 O superscript +] in Solutions of Acids | |

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Solving for [H subscript 3 O superscript +] in Solutions of Bases | |

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Exact Equilibrium Expressions | |

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Quantitation by Acid-Base Titration | |

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Making the Standard Titrant | |

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Adding Known Volumes of Standard Solution | |

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Detecting the Response to the Titrant | |

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Using an Indicator | |

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Using a pH Meter | |

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Concentration Effect in Strong Acid-Base Titration | |

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Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers | |

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Titration of Weak Acids | |

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Buffer Solutions | |

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Titration of Weak Bases | |

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Logarithmic Concentration Plots | |

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Constructing Logarithmic Concentration Diagrams | |

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Solving Problems with Log Plots | |

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Obtaining Titration Curve Points from Log Plots | |

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Quantitation in Polyprotic Systems | |

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Alpha Plots for Polyprotic Systems | |

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Logarithmic Concentration Diagrams | |

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Titration Curves in Polyprotic Systems | |

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Titrations of Acid Mixtures | |

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Other Analyses by Acid-Base Reaction | |

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Identification by Acid-Base Reactivity | |

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Detection by Acid-Base Reactivity | |

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Separation by Acid-Base Reactivity | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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Analysis by Absorption of Light | |

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Colored Solutions and White Light | |

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The Wave Nature of Light | |

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The Particle Nature of Light | |

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Sources of Light | |

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Light Absorbing Solutions | |

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Measuring the Absorption of Light | |

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Developing the Probe | |

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Anticipating the Response to the Probe | |

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Detecting the Response to the Probe | |

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Obtaining the Fraction of Light Transmitted | |

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Relating Light Absorption to Concentration | |

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Rationalizing the Working Curve | |

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The Absorbance-Concentration Relationship | |

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Calibration of the Working Curve | |

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Instruments for Absorption Measurements | |

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Photometers | |

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Spectrometers | |

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Flow Injection Analysis | |

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The Absorbance Spectrum | |

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Rationalizing the Absorbance Spectrum | |

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Obtaining an Absorbance Spectrum | |

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Scanning Spectrometers | |

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Array Detector Spectrometers | |

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Fourier Transform Spectrometers | |

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Attenuated Reflectance Spectroscopy | |

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Spectral Precision and Accuracy | |

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Identification by the Absorption of Light | |

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Compound Identification by Spectral Matching | |

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Deduction of Molecular Structure and Composition | |

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Separation by the Absorption of Light | |

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Mixture Spectra | |

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Resolution by Simultaneous Equations | |

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Study Questions, Section I | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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Analysis by Photon Emission | |

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Photon Excitation of Molecular Species | |

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Photon Absorption | |

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Scattering of the Excitation Radiation | |

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Vibrational Relaxation | |

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Molecular Fluorescence | |

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Phosphorescence | |

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Fluorescence and Phosphoresence Spectrometry | |

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Quantitation | |

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Excitation and Emission Spectra | |

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Phosphorescence Measurements | |

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Raman Spectrometry | |

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Excitation from Chemical Reactivity | |

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Chemiluminescence Measurements | |

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Chemiluminescence Applications | |

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Thermal Excitation and Atomic Emission | |

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Flame Excitation | |

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Plasma Excitation | |

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Creating the Aerosol | |

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Photon Excitation of Atomic Species | |

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Flames for use with Photon Excitation | |

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Furnaces for Sample Atomization | |

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Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy | |

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Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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Analysis by Complexation Reactivity | |

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Complexation Reactions | |

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Bonds Formed in Complexation | |

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Complexing Species | |

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Reaction Rates | |

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Equilibrium Concentrations | |

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Formation of a 1:1 Complex | |

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Solving for Concentrations in Complexation Systems | |

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Formation of Higher Order Complexes | |

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Alpha Plots | |

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The Effect of [H subscript 3 O superscript +] on Complex Equilibria | |

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Hydrolysis of the Coordination Center | |

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Hydrolysis of the Ligand | |

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Hydrolysis of Ligand and Coordination Center | |

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Quantitation by Complexation Titration | |

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Standard Titrants | |

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Titration Curves | |

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Achieving Selectivity with EDTA Titrations | |

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Equivalence Point Detection | |

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Indicators | |

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Displacement Titration | |

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Back Titrations | |

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Specific Ion Electrodes for Equivalence Point Detection | |

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Light Absorption for Equivalence Point Detection | |

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Log Concentration Plots | |

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1:1 Complex Formation | |

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Stepwise Complex Formation Systems | |

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Prediction of Titration Curves | |

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Spot Tests, Test Strips, Flow Injection Analysis and Immunoassays | |

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Spot Tests | |

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Test Strips | |

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Flow Injection Analysis | |

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Immunoassays | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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Analysis by Precipitation Reactivity | |

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Precipitation Reactions | |

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The Equilibrium Expressions | |

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The Crystallization of Precipitates | |

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The Nucleation of Precipitates | |

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Equilibrium Concentrations | |

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Simple Solubility Calculations | |

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Effect of Hydrolysis on Solubility | |

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Effect of Complexation on Solubility | |

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Quantitation by Precipitation Titration | |

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Frequently Used Reactions | |

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Titration Curves | |

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Equivalence Point Detection | |

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Logarithmic Concentration Plots | |

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Unsymmetrical Log Plots | |

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Estimation of Titration Curves | |

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Separation by Precipitation | |

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Quantitation by Weighing the Precipitate | |

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Spot Tests and Test Strips | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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Analysis by Electrode Potential | |

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Electron Exchange at Metals | |

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The Equilibrium Potential Difference | |

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Metal-Solution Potentials from Two Related Ionic Species | |

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Calculating Redox Equilibrium Electrode Potentials | |

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Formal and Thermodynamic Standard Potentials | |

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Relating Redox Concentrations to Equilibrium Potentials | |

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The pH Dependence of Equilibrium Potentials | |

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The Hydrogen Electrode | |

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Measurement of Electrode Potentials | |

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The Necessity of a Reference Electrode | |

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Calculating the Expected Measurement Voltage | |

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Relating Electrode Voltage to Activity and Concentration | |

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Electrodes of the Second Kind | |

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Log Concentration Plots for Redox Couples | |

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Lines for the Case Where Ox and Red are Dissolved | |

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Lines for the Case Where Only Ox or Red is Dissolved | |

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Lines for Secondary Reaction Species | |

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Using Log Plots for Cell Equilibrium Potentials | |

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Log Plots of Unsymmetrical Couples | |

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Ion Reactions on Membrane Surfaces | |

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H[superscript +] Reaction with a Glass Surface | |

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Calculation of the Interfacial Potential | |

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Measurement of Interfacial Potential | |

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Use of the Measured Voltage to Calculate pH | |

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Transistor Chemical Sensors | |

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Interfering Electrode Reactions | |

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Gas-sensing Electrodes | |

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The Use of Ion-Surface Interactions for Ions Other than H[superscript +] | |

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Ion Diffusion Through Porous Membranes | |

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Development of Electrical Potential Difference | |

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Measurement of Membrane Potential | |

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Electrode Types and Interferents | |

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Liquid Junction Potentials | |

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The Equivalence of Response Function for all Electrodes | |

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Selectivity and Detection With Electrodes | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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Analysis by Oxidation--Reduction Reactivity | |

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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions | |

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Combining Electron Half-Reactions | |

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Balancing Complete Redox Reactions | |

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Equilibrium Constants for Redox Reactions | |

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Formal and Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constants | |

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Equilibrium Concentrations | |

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Approximation Method for Equilibrium Concentrations | |

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Algebraic Method for Equilibrium Calculations | |

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Quantitation by Redox Titration | |

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Titration with Ce(IV) | |

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Assuring Analyte Oxidation State Before Titration | |

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Titration Curves | |

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Multiple Equivalence Point Titrations | |

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Equivalence Point Detection | |

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Iodine and Thiosulfate | |

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Log Concentration Plots | |

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Redox Log Plots with a Constant Activity Reactant | |

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Log Plots with Asymmetry and pH Complications | |

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The Iodine, Iodide System | |

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Points on Titration Curves from Log Concentration Plots | |

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Karl Fischer Titration for Water | |

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Quantitation by Electrolytic Redox Reaction | |

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Electrolytic Reactions | |

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Coulombs and Moles | |

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Coulometry | |

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Electrogravimetry | |

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Coulometric Titration | |

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Diffusion-Limited Electrodes | |

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Test Strips, Spot Tests and FIA | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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Analysis by Interphase Partition | |

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The Liquid-Liquid Interface: Extraction | |

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The Gas-Liquid Interface: Distillation | |

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The Gas-Solid Interface: Adsorption | |

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Adsorption Isotherms | |

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Solid Phase Extraction | |

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Continuous Partition: Chromatography | |

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The Fraction of Time Spent in Each Phase | |

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Moving One of the Phases | |

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Measures of Effectiveness | |

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Effect of Mobile Phase Flow Rate | |

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Gas Chromatography | |

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The Instrument | |

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Sample Injection | |

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The Column | |

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The Detector | |

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The General Elution Problem | |

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Peak Overlap | |

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Information Obtained from Gas Chromatograms | |

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High-Performance Liquid Chromatography | |

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The HPLC System | |

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Partition Chromatography | |

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Variations on the Chromatographic Theme | |

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Planar Chromatography | |

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Mass Spectrometric Detection | |

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Multichannel Chromatographic Detection | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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Analysis by Biochemical Reactivity | |

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Enzyme Reactivity | |

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Varieties of Enzymes and Reactivity | |

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Enzyme Activation and Inhibition | |

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The Effect of pH | |

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Enzyme Stability | |

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Kinetics of Enzyme Reactions | |

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First-Order Reaction Rates | |

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Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions | |

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The Michaelis-Menten Equation | |

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Analytical Significance of K[subscript M] and K[subscript cat] | |

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Kinetic Methods of Analysis | |

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Continuous Flow Methods | |

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Stopped Flow Methods | |

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Quenching Methods | |

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Applications of Kinetic Analysis with Enzymes | |

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Antigen-Antibody Reactivity | |

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Antibodies and Their Generation | |

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Detecting the Antibody-Antigen Reaction | |

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Immobilized Enzymes and Antibodies | |

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Bonding Biochemical Reagents | |

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Containing Biochemical Reagents | |

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Separation with Biochemical Reactions | |

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Separation on the Basis of Size | |

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Separation on the Basis of Complexation Reactivity | |

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Separation on the Basis of Mass and Density | |

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Immunoassay | |

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Direct Binding Reactions | |

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Competitive Binding Reactions | |

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| |

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) | |

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| |

Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT) | |

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Applications of Immunoassay | |

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Biochemically Based Sensors | |

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Photon Emission Sensors | |

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Photon Absorption Sensors | |

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Electrode Potential Sensors | |

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Electrode Current Sensors | |

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Practice Questions and Problems | |

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| |

Background Materials | |

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Stoichiometric Ratios in Chemical Compounds and Reactions | |

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| |

Molecular Formulas | |

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Reaction Stoichiometry | |

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Ionic Reactions | |

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Combining Quantities | |

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Logarithms and Exponents | |

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Logarithms | |

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Antilogarithms | |

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"p" Units | |

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Logarithmic Scales | |

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Natural Logarithms | |

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| |

Operations with Exponents | |

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Addition and Subtraction | |

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Multiplication and Division | |

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Operations with Logarithms | |

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Electrical Quantities and Their Relationships | |

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| |

Electrical Conductors and Insulators | |

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| |

Separation of Charge | |

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Electrical Current | |

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Electrical Capacitance | |

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Electrical Signals | |

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Appendices | |

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Tables of Activity Coefficients and a[subscript X] | |

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Calculated Values of Acitivity Coefficient Using the DHE | |

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Table of Ion Size Parameters, a[subscript X], for Inorganic Ions | |

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Table of Ion Size Parameters, a[subscript X], for Organic Ions | |

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K[deg subscript a] Values for Weak Acids in Water | |

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Table of Complex Formation (K[deg subscript f] and K'[subscript f]) Values | |

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K[deg subscript sp] and K'[subscript sp] Values for Some Precipitates | |

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Standard Reduction Potentials | |

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International Atomic Weights | |

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Useful Constants and Conversions | |

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Prefixes for Units and their Multiplication Factors | |

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Techniques Discussed and Their Location | |

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Index | |