Dynamic Earth An Introduction to Physical Geology

ISBN-10: 0471152285

ISBN-13: 9780471152286

Edition: 5th 2004 (Revised)

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Emphasising the theme of dynamic change to our environment, landscapes, climate and resources, this text deals extensively with changes to the Earth's interior and exterior, both from natural processes and human activities.
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Book details

List price: $196.95
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/29/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 648
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 3.278
Language: English

Matthew Parris was born in Africa in 1949 and grew up in Cyprus, Rhodesia, Jamaica and Britain. He became an MP in 1979, and after seven years a Conservative MP he became the regular parliamentary sketchwriter for The Times. His books include his autobiography Chance Witness, Read My Lips, Scorn with Added Vitriol, and Inca-Kola. Parris is a regular travel writer, reviewer, broadcaster and columnist, and has presented Great Lives since 2006.

Meet Planet Earth
Opening Essay: Discovering Geology
Introduction
About Geology and Geologists
The Scientific Method
How Rapid Are Geologic Processes?
Earth's Neighborhood: The Solar System
Earth's Internal Structure: Energy, Heat, Gravity, and Buoyancy
The System Concept
Interactions among Earth's Open Systems
Changes Caused By Human Activities
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: The Earth System
Understanding Our Environment Box 1.1 Epitaph for the Aral Sea
The Science of Geology Box 1.2 Cycling of Biogeochemical Elements Important for Life
Global Tectonics: Our Dynamic Planet
Opening Essay: Earth is a Noisy Planet, If You Keep Your Ear to the Ground
Introduction
What Earth's Surface Features Tell Us
What Earth's Internal Phenomena Tell Us
Plates and Mantle Convection
Four Types of Plate Margins and How They Move
Divergent Margin
Convergent Margin/Subduction Zone
Convergent Margin/Collision Zone
Transform Fault Margin
Topography of the Ocean Floor
Hot Spots and Absolute Motion
What Causes Plate Tectonics?
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Plate Tectonics
The Science of Geology Box 2.1 Rock Deformation: Strain and Stress
The Science of Geology Box 2.2 Thermal Convection
Atoms, Elements, Minerals, Rocks: Earth's Building Materials
Opening Essay: Mineral Exploration: The Story of Sudbury
Introduction: What Is A Mineral?
Composition of Minerals
Crystal Structure of Minerals
Properties of Minerals
Common Minerals
Silicates: The Largest Mineral Group
The Carbonate, Phosphate, and Sulfate Mineral Groups
The Ore Mineral Groups--Our Source for Metals
Minerals Give Clues to Their Environment of Formation
Rocks: Mixtures of Minerals
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Mineral Names to Remember
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Atoms, Elements, Minerals, and Rocks
Petroscope For Minerals
The Science of Geology Box 3.1 The Three States of Matter
Understanding Our Environment Box 3.2 Longterm Danger of Abandoned Mines
Understanding Our Environment Box 3.3 Absestos: How Risky Is It?
Igneous Rocks: Products of Earth's Internal Fire
Opening Essay: Watching Magma Solidify
Introduction: What Is an Igneous Rock?
Texture in Igneous Rocks
Mineral Assemblage in Igneous Rocks
Pyroclasts, Tephra, and Tuffs
Plutons
Whence Magma?
Solidification of Magma
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Important Rock Names to Remember
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Volcanoes and Igneous Rocks
Petroscope to Igneous Rocks
The Science of Geology Box 4.1. How Rock Melts
Magmas and Volcanoes
Opening Essay: Witnessing an Eruption at Close Hand
Introduction: Earth's Internal Thermal Engine
Magma: Molten Rock of Different Types
How Bouyant Magma Erupts on the Surface
Eruption Style--Nonexplosive or Explosive?
Volcanoes
Posteruption Effects
Volcanic Hazards
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Geohazards and Volcanoes and Igneous Rocks
Understanding Our Environment Box 5.1 Life Returns to Mount St. Helens
The Science of Geology Box 5.2 Harnessing the Heat Within
Weathering and Soils
Opening Essay: Chinese Soils and Monsoon Climates
Introduction: Weathering--The Breakdown of Rock
Physical Weathering
Chemical Weathering
Factors That Influence Weathering
Soil: Origin and Classification
Soil Erosion
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Sedimentary Rock
Understanding Our Environment Box 6.1 Decaying Buildings and Monuments
The Science of Geology Box 6.2 Using Weathering Rinds to Measure Relative Age
Understanding Our Environment Box 6.3 The Soil Erosion Crisis
Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks: Archives of Earth History
Opening Essay: Interpreting Sedimentary Rocks Before Plate Tectonics
Introduction: Sediments in the Rock Cycle
Sedimentation, Stratification, and Bedding
Sediment Types and Characteristics
Sedimentary Environments and Facies Changes
Diagenesis: How Sediment Becomes Rock
Sedimentary Rocks: Clastic, Chemical, and Biogenic
Environmental Clues in Sedimentary Rocks
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Important Rock Names to Remember
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Sedimentary Rocks and Petroscope for Sedimentary Rocks
The Science of Geology Box 7.1 Graphic Display of Geologic Data
Metamorphism and Metomorphic Rocks: New Rocks from Old
Opening Essay: Estimating a Temperature and a Pressure
Introduction: All Things Metamorphose
What Is Metamorphism?
Major Factors in Metamorphism
The Upper and Lower Limits of Metamorphism
How Rocks Respond to Temperature and Pressure Change in Metamorphism
Types of Metamorphic Rock
Types of Metamorphism
Metamorphic Facies
Metasomatism
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Metamorphic Rocks
The Science of Geology Box 8.1 Pressure-Temperature-Time Paths: The Tectonic History of Metamorphic Rock
Understanding Our Environment Box 8.2 Concrete: The Artificial Metamorphic Rock that Changed Our Environment
How Rock Bends, Buckles, and Breaks
Opening Essay: The Ore Body that Sank
Introduction
How Is Rock Deformed?
Deformation in Progress
Evidence of Former Deformation
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Plate Tectonics and Metamorphic Rocks
Understanding Our Environment Box 9.1 Rock Deformation and Oil Pools
Earthquakes and Earth's Interior
Opening Essay: A Temblor Strikes Home
Introduction
How Earthquakes Are Studied
Earthquake Hazard
World Distribution of Earthquakes
First-Motion Studies of the Earthquake Source
Earthquake Forecasting and Prediction
Using Seismic Waves as Earth Probes
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Geohazards
The Science of Geology Box 10.1 Calculating a Richter Magnitude
Understanding Our Environment Box 10.2 A Great Earthquake in the Pacific Northwest?
Geologic Time and the Rock Record
Opening Essay: Determining How Rapidly Carbonate Sediments Accumulate
Introduction
Reading the Record of Layered Rocks
Stratigraphic Classification
Bridging the Gaps: Correlation of Rock Units
The Geologic Column and the Geologic Time Scale
Measuring Geologic Time Numerically
The Magnetic Polarity Time Scale
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: The Rock Record and Geologic Time
The Science of Geology Box 11.1 Potassium-Argon ([superscript 40]K/[superscript 40]AR) Dating
Understanding Our Environment Box 11.2 K/Ar Dating of Hawaiian Glaciations and African Hominids
The Changing Face of the Land
Opening Essay: Why Is Italy Uplifting?
Introduction: Whence Earth's Varied Landscapes?
Uplift and Denudation: Competing Geologic Forces
Hypothetical Models For Landscape Evolution
How Can We Calculate Rates of Uplift and Denudation?
Ancient Landscapes of Low Relief
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System--Uplift, Weathering, and the Carbon Cycle
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Plate Tectonics and Geohazards
Understanding Our Environment Box 12.1 Human Activity as an Agent of Denudation
The Science of Geology Box 12.2 Estimating Exhumation Rates with Radioactive Decay
Mass Wasting
Opening Essay: The Night the Mountain Fell
Introduction: What Is Mass Wasting?
Downslope Movement of Rock Debris
Mass-Wasting Processes
Mass Wasting in Cold Climates
Mass Wasting Under Water
What Triggers Mass-Wasting Events?
Hazards to Life and Property
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Geohazards
The Science of Geology Box 13.1 Downslope Movement and the Safety Factor
The Science of Geology Box 13.2 The Beverage-Can Experiment
Streams and Drainage Systems
Opening Essay: A Chinese Emperor's Buried Army
Introduction: Streams in the Landscape
Stream Channels
Dynamics of Streamflow
Channel Patterns
Erosion by Running Water
The Stream's Load
Stream Deposits
Drainage Systems
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: The Water Cycle
Understanding Our Environment Box 14.1 Taming the Yangtze River
Groundwater
Opening Essay: Ice-Age Cave Dwellers in the Pyrenees
Introduction: The Importance of Water
Water in the Ground
How Groundwater Moves
Springs and Wells
Aquifers
Mining Groundwater, and its Consequences
Water Quality and Groundwater Contamination
Geologic Activity of Groundwater
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: The Water Cycle
The Science of Geology Box 15.1 How Fast Does Groundwater Flow?
Understanding Our Environment Box 15.2 Toxic Groundwater in the San Joaquin Valley
Glaciers and Glaciation
Opening Essay: Modern Analogs of Ice-Age Glaciers
Introduction: Earth's Changing Cover of Snow and Ice Glaciers
Glaciation
Periglacial Landscapes and Permafrost
The Glacial Ages
What Causes Glacial Ages?
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Glaciers, Glaciation, and Ice Sheets
Understanding Our Environment Box 16.1 Living with Permafrost
The Science of Geology Box 16.2 Understanding Milankovitch
Almosphere, Winds, and Deserts
Opening Essay: Living on the Edge of the Desert
Introduction: Wind as a Geologic Agent
Planetary Wind System
Movement of Sediment By Wind
Wind Erosion
Eolian Deposits
Dust in Ocean Sediments and Glacier Ice
Deserts
Surface Processes and Landforms in Deserts
Desertification
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Geohazards
The Science of Geology Box 17.1 Measuring Earth's Hum
Understanding Our Environment Box 17.2 Tectonic Desertification
The Oceans and Their Margins
Opening Essay: Changing Sea Level and Atoll Evolution
Introduction: The World Ocean
The Ocean's Characteristics
Depth and Volume of the Oceans
Ocean Circulation
Ocean Tides
Ocean Waves
Coastal Erosion and Sediment Transport
Coastal Deposits and Landforms
How Coasts Evolve
Coastal Hazards
Protection against Shoreline Erosion
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Geohazards
Understanding Our Environment Box 18.1 How to Modify an Estuary
Climate and Our Changing Planet
Opening Essay: The Sensitivity of Earth's Climate to Small Changes
Introduction: The Changing Atmosphere
Global Warming
The Past as a Key to the Future
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: Glaciers, Glaciation, and Ice Sheets
Understanding Our Environment Box 19.1 The Ozone Hole
The Science of Geology Box 19.2 The Younger Dryas Event and the End of the Last Ice Age
Earth Through Geologic Time
Opening Essay: Watching a Continent Grow in Kamchatka
Introduction: Tracking Past Plate Motions
Supercontinents and Vanished Oceans
Regional Structures of Continents
Continental Margins
Mountain Building
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
GeoDiscoveries: The Rock Record and Geologic Time
The Science of Geology Box 20.1 Watching a Continent Splinter
Resources of Minerals and Energy
Opening Essay: The Golden Puzzle of the Witwatersrand
Introduction: Natural Resources and Human History
Mineral Resources
Origin of Mineral Deposits
Useful Mineral Substances
Energy Resources
Fossil Fuels
Other Sources of Energy
Revisiting Plate Tectonics and the Earth System
What's Ahead?
Chapter Summary
The Language of Geology
Questions For Review
Understanding Our Environment Box 21.1 Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits Forming Today
Understanding Our Environment Box 21.2 The Waste Disposal Problem: Geology and Politics
Units and Their Conversions
Tables of the Chemical Elements and Naturally Occurring Isotopes
Table of the Properties of Common Minerals
Glossary
Selected References
Credits
Index
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