Environment

ISBN-10: 0470945702
ISBN-13: 9780470945704
Edition: 8th 2012
List price: $195.95 Buy it from $21.71
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Description: The 8th Edition of Environment builds on the previous comprehensive, systems-based environmental science issue with more in-depth information on systems approach, which emphasizes the interconnected nature of environmental science throughout the  More...

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Book details

List price: $195.95
Edition: 8th
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/17/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 592
Size: 9.25" wide x 11.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.146
Language: English

The 8th Edition of Environment builds on the previous comprehensive, systems-based environmental science issue with more in-depth information on systems approach, which emphasizes the interconnected nature of environmental science throughout the text. The book is even more reader-friendly integrated learning system designed to help move from general concepts to specific applications and continues to focus on currency. It presents the basic facts, various perspectives on issues, and framework to help readers reach their own informed decisions in a changing marketplace.

Introducing Environmental Science and Sustainability
Human Impacts on the Environment
Increasing Human Numbers
The Gap Between Rich and Poor Countries
Population, Resources, and the Environment
Types of Resources
Resource Consumption
The IPAT Model
Sustainability
Sustainability and the Tragedy of the Commons
Global Plans for Sustainable Development
Environmental Science
Earth Systems and Environmental Science
Science as a Process
Addressing Environmental Problems
Working Together
Case In Point Lake Washington
Environmental Laws, Economics, and Ethics
A Brief Environmental History of the United States
Protecting Forests
Establishing and Protecting National Parks and Monuments
Conservation in the Mid-20th Century
The Environmental Movement of the Late 20th Century
U.S. Environmental Legislation
Environmental Policy Since 1970
Economics and the Environment
Strategies for Pollution Control
Critiques of Environmental Economics
Natural Resources, the Environment, and National Income Accounts
Environmental Justice
Environmental Justice and Ethical Issues
Mandating Environmental Justice at the Federal Level
Environmental Justice at the International Level
Environmental Ethics, Values, and Worldviews
Human-Centered and Life-Centered Worldviews
Case In Point Environmental Problems in Central and Eastern Europe
Ecosystems and Energy
What Is Ecology?
The Energy of Life
The First Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
The Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems
Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers
The Path of Energy Flow: Who Eats Whom in Ecosystems
Ecological Pyramids
Ecosystem Productivity
Case In Point Life Without the Sun
Case In Point How Humans Have Affected the Antarctic Food Web
Ecosystems and the Physical Environment
The Cycling of Materials Within Ecosystems
The Carbon Cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle
The Phosphorus Cycle
The Sulfur Cycle
The Hydrologic Cycle
Solar Radiation
Temperature Changes with Latitude
Temperature Changes with the Seasons
The Atmosphere
Layers of the Atmosphere
Atmospheric Circulation
The Global Ocean
Patterns of Circulation in the Ocean
Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water
Ocean Interactions with the Atmosphere
Weather and Climate
Precipitation
Tornadoes
Tropical Cyclones
Internal Planetary Processes
Earthquakes
Volcanoes
Meeting The Challenge Recycling Phosphorus From Sewage
Case In Point Hurricane Katrina
Ecosystems and Living Organisms
Evolution: How Populations Change Over Time
Natural Selection
The Modern Synthesis
Evolution of Biological Diversity: The Domains and Kingdoms of Life
Principles of Population Ecology
Population Density
How Do Populations Change in Size?
Maximum Population Growth
Environmental Resistance and Carrying Capacity
Factors That Affect Population Size
Reproductive Strategies
Survivorship
Metapopulations
Biological Communities
The Ecological Niche
Competition
Symbiosis
Predation
Keystone Species
Species Richness in a Community
Species Richness, Ecosystem Services, and Community Stability
Community Development
Primary Succession
Secondary Succession
Case In Point Species Richness in Lake Victoria
Major Ecosystems of the World
Earth���s Major Biomes
Tundra: Cold Boggy Plains of the Far North
Boreal Forests: Conifer Forests of the North
Temperate Rain Forests: Lush Temperate Forests
Temperate Deciduous Forests: Broad-leaved Trees That Shed Their Leaves
Grasslands: Temperate Seas of Grass
Chaparral: Thickets of Evergreen Shrubs and Small Trees
Deserts: Arid Life Zones
Savanna: Tropical Grasslands
Tropical Rain Forests: Lush Equatorial Forests
Vertical Zonation: The Distribution of Vegetation on Mountains
Aquatic Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Estuaries: Where Fresh Water and Salt Water Meet
Marine Ecosystems
Case In Point The Everglades
Human Health and Environmental Toxicology
Human Health
Health Issues in Highly Developed Countries
Health Issues in Developing Countries
Emerging and Reemerging Diseases
Environmental Pollution and Disease
Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological Magnification of Environmental Contaminants
Endocrine Disrupters
Determining Health Effects of Environmental Pollution
Identifying Toxic Substances
Children and Chemical Exposure
Ecotoxicology: Toxicant Effects on Communities and Ecosystems
Decision Making and Uncertainty: Assessment of Risks
Risk Information as a Decision Tool
Ecological Risk Assessment
Meeting The Challenge Global Polio Eradication
Case In Point Influenza Pandemics Past and Future
Case In Point The Ocean and Human Health
The Human Population
The Science of Demography
Current and Future Population Numbers
Human Migration
Demographics of Countries
Demographic Stages
Age Structure
Population and Quality of Life
Population and Chronic Hunger
Economic Effects of Continued Population Growth
Reducing the Total Fertility Rate
Culture and Fertility
The Social and Economic Status of Women
Family Planning Services
Government Policies and Fertility
China and Mexico: Contrasting Population Growth Measures
Achieving Population Stabilization
Case In Point The Millennium Development Goals
Meeting The Challenge The Poverty Action Lab
The Urban Environment
Population and Urbanization
Characteristics of the Urban Population
Urbanization Trends
The City as an Ecosystem
Phoenix, Arizona: Long-Term Study of an Urban Ecosystem
Environmental Problems Associated with Urban Areas
Environmental Benefits of Urbanization
Urban Land Use Planning
Transportation and Urban Development
Suburban Sprawl
Making Cities More Sustainable
Meeting The Challenge Green Architecture
Case In Point Curitiba, Brazil
Energy Consumption
Energy Consumption and Policy
Energy Consumption
Energy Efficiency and Conservation
Energy Efficiency
Energy Conservation
Electricity, Hydrogen, and Energy Storage
Electricity
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
Energy Storage
Energy Policy
You Can Make A Difference Saving Energy at Home
Case In Point Hydrogen and Electricity for Transportation
Fossil Fuels
Fossil Fuels
How Fossil Fuels Formed
Fossil Fuels, the Carbon Cycle, and Climate
Coal
Coal Reserves
Coal Mining
Safety Problems Associated with Coal
Environmental Impacts of the Mining Process
Environmental Impacts of Burning Coal
Making Coal a Cleaner Fuel
Capture and Storage of Carbon from Coal
Oil and Natural Gas
Exploration for Oil and Natural Gas
Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas
Global Oil Demand and Supply
Environmental Impacts of Oil and Natural Gas
Synfuels and Other Potential Fossil-Fuel Resources
Environmental Impacts of Synfuels
Case In Point The Marcellus Shale
Case In Point The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
Renewable Energy and Nuclear Power
Direct Solar Energy
Heating Buildings and Water
Solar Thermal Electric Generation
Photovoltaics
Indirect Solar Energy
Biomass Energy
Wind Energy
Hydropower
Other Indirect Solar Energy
Other Renewable Energy Sources
Geothermal Energy
Tidal Energy
Nuclear Power
Electricity from Conventional Nuclear Fission
Breeder Reactors and Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) for Nuclear Fission
Pros and Cons of Nuclear Energy
Safety Issues at Nuclear Power Plants
The Link Between Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Weapons
Radioactive Wastes
Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants
The Future of Nuclear Power
Small and Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors
Public and Expert Attitudes toward Nuclear Energy
Fusion: Nuclear Energy for the Future
Case In Point The Three Gorges Dam
Case In Point Yucca Mountain
Water: A Limited Resource
The Importance of Water
Properties of Water
The Hydrologic Cycle and Our Supply of Fresh Water
Water Use and Resource Problems
Too Much Water
Too Little Water
Water Problems in the United States and Canada
Surface Water
Groundwater
Global Water Problems
Water and Climate Change
Drinking-Water Problems
Population Growth and Water Problems
Sharing Water Resources Among Countries
Water Management
Providing a Sustainable Water Supply
Water Conservation
Reducing Agricultural Water Waste
Reducing Industrial Water Waste
Reducing Municipal Water Waste
Case In Point The Floods of 2008
You Can Make A Difference Conserving Water at Home
Soil Resources
The Soil System
State Factors: Soil-Forming Factors
Soil Composition
Soil Horizons
Soil Organisms
Nutrient Cycling
Soil Properties and Major Soil Types
Soil Acidity
Major Soil Groups
Environmental Problems Related to Soil
Soil Erosion
Nutrient Mineral Depletion
Soil Salinization
Desertification
Soil Conservation and Regeneration
Conservation Tillage
Crop Rotation
Contour Plowing, Strip Cropping, and Terracing
Preserving Soil Fertility
Soil Reclamation
Agroforestry
Soil Conservation Policies in the United States
Case In Point The American Dust Bowl
You Can Make A Difference Composting and Mulching
Mineral Resources
Introduction to Minerals
Mineral Distribution and Formation
How Minerals are Found, Extracted, and Processed
Environmental Impacts Associated with Minerals
Mining and The Environment
Environmental Impacts of Refining Minerals
Restoration of Mining Lands
Minerals: An International Perspective
Worldwide Mineral Consumption
Mineral Distribution Versus Consumption
Will We Run Out of Important Minerals?
Increasing the Supply of Minerals
Locating and Mining New Deposits
Minerals in Antarctica
Minerals from the Ocean
Advanced Mining and Processing Technologies
Using Substitution and Conservation to Expand Mineral Supplies
Finding Mineral Substitutes
Mineral Conservation
Case In Point Copper Basin, Tennessee
Meeting The Challenge Industrial Ecosystems
Biological Resources
Biological Diversity
Why We Need Organisms
Extinction and Species Endangerment
Endangered and Threatened Species
Where is Declining Biological Diversity the Greatest Problem?
Human Causes of Species Endangerment
Conservation Biology
In Situ Conservation: Protecting Habitats
Restoring Damaged or Destroyed Habitats
Zoos, Aquaria, Botanical Gardens, and Seed Banks
Conservation Organizations
Conservation Policies and Laws
Habitat Conservation Plans
International Conservation Policies and Laws
Wildlife Management
Management of Migratory Animals
Management of Aquatic Organisms
You Can Make A Difference Addressing Declining Biological Diversity
Case In Point Disappearing Frogs
Meeting The Challenge Dealing Effectively with Fragmented Habitats
Land Resources
Land Use
World Land Use
Land Use in the United States
Wilderness, Parks, and Wildlife Refuges
National Parks
Wildlife Refuges
Forests
Forest Management
Deforestation
Forest Trends in the United States
Trends in Tropical Forests
Boreal Forests and Deforestation
Rangelands and Agricultural Lands
Rangeland Degradation and Desertification
Rangeland Trends in the United States
Agricultural Lands
Wetlands and Coastal Areas
Coastlines
Conservation of Land Resources
Meeting The Challenge Preserving Forests in the Eastern
States
Case In Point Tongass National Forest
Food Resources
World Food Security
Famines
Maintaining Grain Stocks
Economic and Political Effects on Food Security
Poverty and Food
Food Production
The Main Types of Agriculture
Challenges of Producing More Crops and Livestock
The Effect of Domestication on Genetic Diversity
Increasing Crop Yields
Increasing Livestock Yields
The Gene Revolution
The Environmental Impacts of Agriculture
Cultivating Marginal Lands
Solutions to Agricultural Problems
Sustainable Agriculture
Making Subsistence Agriculture Sustainable and More
Productive
Fisheries of the World
Problems and Challenges for the Fishing Industry
Ocean Pollution and Deteriorating Habitat
Aquaculture: Fish Farming
You Can Make A Difference Vegetarian Diets
Case In Point The Green Revolution
Meeting The Challenge Certified Environmental Management Systems for Agriculture
Air Pollution
The Atmosphere as a Resource
Types and Sources of Air Pollution
Major Classes of Air Pollutants
Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution
Urban Air Pollution
Effects of Air Pollution
Air Pollution and Human Health
Controlling Air Pollution in the United States
Controlling Air Pollutants
The Clean Air Act
Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
The Causes of Ozone Depletion
The Effects of Ozone Depletion
Facilitating the Recovery of the Ozone Layer
Acid Deposition
Measuring Acidity
How Acid Deposition Develops
The Effects of Acid Deposition
The Politics of Acid Deposition
Facilitating Recovery from Acid Deposition
Air Pollution Around the World
Long-Distance Transport of Air Pollution
Indoor Air Pollution
Controlling Indoor Air Pollution
Indoor Tobacco Smoke
Radon
Case In Point Efforts to Reduce Ozone In Southern California
Meeting The Challenge States Adopt Low Carbon Fuel Standard
Case In Point Air Pollution In Beijing And Mexico City
Global Climate Change
Introduction to Climate Change
The Causes of Global Climate Change
Pollutants That Cool the Atmosphere
Developing and Using Climate Models
Unpredictable and Extreme Climate Change
The Effects of Global Climate Change
Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels
Changes in Precipitation Patterns
Effects on Organisms
Effects on Human Health
Effects on Agriculture
International Implications of Global Climate Change
Links among Global Climate Change, Ozone Depletion, and Acid Deposition
Dealing with Global Climate Change
Mitigation of Global Climate Change
Adaptation to Global Climate Change
International Efforts to Reduce Greenhouse Gas
Emissions
Case In Point Impacts In Fragile Areas
Water Pollution
Types of Water Pollution
Sewage
Disease-Causing Agents
Sediment Pollution
Inorganic Plant and Algal Nutrients
Organic Compounds
Inorganic Chemicals
Radioactive Substances
Thermal Pollution
Water Quality Today
Water Pollution from Agriculture
Municipal Water Pollution
Industrial Wastes in Water
Groundwater Pollution
Water Pollution in Other Countries
Improving Water Quality
Purification of Drinking Water
Municipal Sewage Treatment
Individual Septic Systems
Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems
Laws Controlling Water Pollution
Safe Drinking Water Act
Clean Water Act
Laws that Protect Groundwater
Case In Point Green Chemistry
You Can Make A Difference Preventing Water Pollution
Meeting The Challenge Using Citizen Watchdogs to Monitor Water Pollution
Pest Management
What Is a Pesticide?
First-Generation and Second-Generation Pesticides
The Major Groups of Insecticides
The Major Kinds of Herbicides
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides
Benefit: Disease Control
Benefit: Crop Protection
Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance
Problem: Imbalances in the Ecosystem
Problems: Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological
Magnification
Problem: Mobility in the Environment
Risks of Pesticides to Human Health
Short-Term Effects of Pesticides
Long-Term Effects of Pesticides
Pesticides as Endocrine Disrupters
Alternatives to Pesticides
Using Cultivation Methods to Control Pests
Biological Controls
Pheromones and Hormones
Reproductive Controls
Genetic Controls
Quarantine
The Systems Approach: Integrated Pest Management
Irradiating Foods
Laws Controlling Pesticide Use
Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
Food Quality Protection Act
The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticide
The Importation of Food Tainted With Banned Pesticides
The Global Ban on Persistent Organic Pollutants
Case In Point Bt, its Potential and Problems
You Can Make A Difference Avoiding Pesticide use at Home
Case In Point Economic Development and Pesticides in Central America
Solid and Hazardous Wastes
Solid Waste
Types of Solid Waste
Open Dumps
Sanitary Landfills
Incineration
Composting
Waste Prevention
Reducing the Amount of Waste: Source Reduction
Reusing Products
Recycling Materials
Integrated Waste Management
Hazardous Waste
Types of Hazardous Waste
Management of Hazardous Waste
Meeting The Challenge Reusing and Recycling Old Automobiles
Case In Point Hanford Nuclear Reservation
Tomorrow���s World
Living Sustainably
Sustainable Living: A Plan of Action
Eliminating Poverty and Stabilizing the Human Population
Protecting and Restoring Earth���s Resources
Providing Adequate Food for all People
Mitigating Climate Change
Designing Sustainable Cities
Changing Personal Attitudes and Practices
The Role of Education
What Kind of World Do We Want?
Meeting The Challenge Microcredit Programs
Case In Point Jakarta, Indonesia
Appendices
Review of Basic Chemistry A-1
Graphing A-6
Models and Modeling A-8
Units of Measure: Some Useful Conversions A-10
Abbreviations, Formulas, and Acronyms Used in This Text A-11
Glossary G-1
Index I-1

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