| |

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Preface | |

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Acknowledgements | |

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List of Abbreviations | |

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Weight and Mass | |

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The Preliminaries | |

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Basic Principles | |

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The Atmosphere | |

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The Composition of Air | |

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The Measurement of Temperature | |

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Air Density | |

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The International Standard Atmosphere | |

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ISA Deviation | |

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JSA Deviation | |

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Height and Altitude | |

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Pressure Altitude | |

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Density Altitude | |

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The Physical Properties of Air | |

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Fluid Pressure | |

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Static Pressure | |

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Dynamic Pressure | |

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Basic Physics | |

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Newton's Laws of Motion | |

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Definitions | |

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First Law | |

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Second Law | |

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Third Law | |

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Constant-Acceleration Formulae | |

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The Equation of Impulse | |

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The Basic Gas Laws | |

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Boyles Law | |

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Charles' Law | |

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Pressure Law | |

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The Ideal Gas Equation | |

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The Conservation Laws | |

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Bernoulli's Theorem | |

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Viscosity | |

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The Equation of Continuity | |

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Reynolds Number | |

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Critical Reynolds Number (Recrit) | |

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Units of Measurement | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 1 | |

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Basic Aerodynamic Definitions | |

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Aerofoil Profile | |

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Aerofoil Attitude | |

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Wing Shape | |

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Wing Loading | |

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Weight and Mass | |

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The Newton | |

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Airspeeds | |

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Airspeed Indicator Reading (ASIR) | |

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Indicated Airspeed (IAS) | |

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Calibrated Airspeed (CAS) | |

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Rectified Airspeed (RAS) | |

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Equivalent Airspeed (EAS) | |

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True Airspeed (TAS) | |

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Mach Number | |

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Speed Summary | |

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The Effect of Altitude on Airspeeds | |

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Below the Tropopause | |

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Above the Tropopause | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 2 | |

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Basic Aerodynamics | |

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Basic Control | |

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Aeroplane Axes and Planes of Rotation | |

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The Longitudinal or Roll Axis | |

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The Lateral or Pitch Axis | |

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The Normal or Yaw Axis | |

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The Flight Controls | |

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The Elevators | |

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Pitch Control | |

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Control Surface Area | |

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Control Surface Angular Deflection | |

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The Moment Arm | |

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Angle of Attack | |

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Alternative Pitch Controls | |

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Variable Incidence Tailplane | |

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The Stabilator | |

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The Elevons | |

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The Rudder | |

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Yaw Control | |

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Control-Surface Area | |

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Control-Surface Deflection | |

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The Moment Arm | |

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Engine-Induced Yaw | |

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Asymmetric Engine Yawing Moment | |

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Asymmetric Rolling Moment | |

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Minimum Control Speeds | |

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For Take-off | |

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For Landing | |

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Vmc | |

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Vmcg | |

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The Effect of the Variables on Vmcg and Vmc | |

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Vmcl | |

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Vmcl (1 out) | |

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Vmcl-2 | |

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The Effect of the Variables on Vmcl | |

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The Ailerons | |

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Roll Control | |

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The Flaperon | |

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Wing Twist | |

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Geometric Twist | |

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Aerodynamic Twist | |

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Twisterons | |

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High-Speed Twist | |

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Low-Speed Ailerons | |

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High-Speed Ailerons | |

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Roll Spoilers | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 3 | |

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Lift Generation | |

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Turbulent Flow | |

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Streamline Flow | |

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The Boundary Layer | |

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The Laminar Boundary Layer | |

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The Transition Point | |

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The Turbulent Boundary Layer | |

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Leading-Edge Separation | |

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Boundary-Layer Control | |

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Blowing | |

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Suction | |

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Vortex Generators | |

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Two-Dimensional Flow | |

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The Stagnation Point | |

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Aerofoil Upper-Surface Airflow | |

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Aerofoil Lower-Surface Airflow | |

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Lift Production | |

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Symmetrical Aerofoils | |

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Cambered Aerofoils | |

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Negative Angles of Attack | |

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Small Positive Angles of Attack | |

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Large Positive Angles of Attack | |

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The Centre of Pressure (CP) | |

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Pitching Moments | |

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The Aerodynamic Centre | |

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Three-Dimensional Flow | |

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Wing-Tip Vortices | |

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Wake Turbulence | |

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Spanwise Lift Distribution | |

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The Effect of Wing Planform | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 4 | |

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Level-Flight Aerodynamics | |

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Lift Analysis | |

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The Four Forces | |

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Mass | |

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Lift Analysis | |

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The Factors Affecting Cl | |

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The Effect of Angle of Attack | |

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The Effect of the Wing Shape | |

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The Effect of Leading-Edge Radius | |

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The Effect of Camber | |

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The Effect of Aspect Ratio | |

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The Wing Planform | |

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The Effect of Sweepback | |

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The Effect of Airframe-Surface Condition | |

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The Effect of Reynolds Number | |

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The Relationship between Speeds, Angles of Attack and Cl | |

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Aerofoil Profiles | |

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High-Lift Aerofoils | |

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General-Purpose Aerofoils | |

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High-Speed Aerofoils | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 5 | |

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Lift Augmentation | |

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Wing Loading | |

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Clmax Augmentation | |

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Slats | |

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Automatic Slats | |

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Manual Slats | |

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Slots | |

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Flaps | |

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Leading-Edge Flaps | |

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The Krueger Flap | |

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The Drooped Leading Edge | |

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Trailing-Edge Flaps | |

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The Plain Trailing-Edge Flap | |

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The Split Trailing-Edge Flap | |

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The Slotted Trailing-Edge Flap | |

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The Fowler Flap | |

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The Effect of Trailing-Edge Flaps | |

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Leading- and Trailing-Edge Combinations | |

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The Effect of Sweepback on Flap | |

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| |

Self-Assessment Exercise 6 | |

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Drag | |

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Parasite (Profile) Drag | |

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Surface-Friction Drag | |

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Surface Area | |

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Coefficient of Viscosity | |

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Rate of Change of Airspeed | |

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Flow Transition | |

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Surface Condition | |

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Speed and Size | |

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Adverse Pressure Gradient | |

| |

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Form (Pressure) Drag | |

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Interference Drag | |

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Induced Drag | |

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| |

The Effect of Speed | |

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The Effect of Mass | |

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The Effect of Planform | |

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The Effect of Sweepback | |

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The Effect of Aspect Ratio | |

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The Effect of Flap | |

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The Effect of the CG Position | |

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Effects Summary | |

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Ground Effect | |

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| |

Wing-Tip Design | |

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| |

Wingspan Loading | |

| |

| |

The Coefficient of Induced Drag (CDI) | |

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| |

Total Drag | |

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| |

Analysis of the Total-Drag Curve | |

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| |

The Velocity of Minimum Drag (Vimd) | |

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The Velocity of MinimumPower(Vimp) | |

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The Maximum EAS/Drag Ratio (Vi/Dmax) Speed | |

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Speed Stability and Instability | |

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The Effect of the Variables on Total Drag | |

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The Effect of Altitude | |

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The Effect of Mass | |

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The Effect of Flap | |

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The Cl v Cd Polar Diagram | |

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Analysis of the Lift/Drag Ratio | |

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The Effect of Flap | |

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The Effect of Aspect Ratio | |

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The Effect of Mass | |

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Drag Augmentation | |

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| |

Airbrakes | |

| |

| |

Spoilers | |

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| |

Flight Spoilers | |

| |

| |

Ground Spoilers | |

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Roll Spoilers | |

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| |

Barn-Door Flaps | |

| |

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Drag Parachutes | |

| |

| |

Self-Assessment Exercise 7 | |

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| |

Stalling | |

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The Stall | |

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| |

The Boundary Layer | |

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| |

Boundary-Layer Separation | |

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Trailing-Edge Separation | |

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Leading-Edge Separation | |

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The Low-Speed Stall | |

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Stalling Angle | |

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Factors Affecting the Low-Speed Stalling Angle | |

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Slat/Flap Setting | |

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Ice Accretion | |

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Effect on Take-off and Landing | |

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Take-Off | |

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Landing | |

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Reduced Stalling Angle | |

| |

| |

Abnormal Stalling Characteristics | |

| |

| |

Heavy Rain | |

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| |

The Effect of Wing Design on the Low-Speed Stall | |

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| |

Swept Wings | |

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| |

Elliptical Wings | |

| |

| |

Rectangular Wings | |

| |

| |

Straight Tapered Wings | |

| |

| |

Spanwise-Flow Attenuation Devices | |

| |

| |

The Wing Fence | |

| |

| |

The Sawtooth Leading Edge | |

| |

| |

The Notched Leading Edge | |

| |

| |

Vortex Generators | |

| |

| |

Wing-Tip Stalling | |

| |

| |

The Effect of Flap | |

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The Prevention of Wing-Tip Stalling | |

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| |

Washout | |

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| |

Root Spoiler | |

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| |

| |

Changing Camber | |

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| |

| |

Slats and Slots | |

| |

| |

| |

Aspect Ratio | |

| |

| |

Stalling Characteristics | |

| |

| |

Ideal Stalling Characteristics | |

| |

| |

Swept-Wing Stalling Characteristics | |

| |

| |

Summary of Factors Affecting the Stalling Angle | |

| |

| |

Stall Warning | |

| |

| |

Aerodynamic Stall Warning | |

| |

| |

Mechanical Stall Warning | |

| |

| |

The Flapper Switch | |

| |

| |

The Angle of Attack Sensor | |

| |

| |

Stick Shakers | |

| |

| |

Stick Pushers | |

| |

| |

Stalling Speed | |

| |

| |

Factors Affecting Stalling Speed | |

| |

| |

Centre of Gravity (CG) | |

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| |

Forward CG | |

| |

| |

Disadvantage | |

| |

| |

Advantage | |

| |

| |

Aft CG | |

| |

| |

Disadvantage | |

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Advantage | |

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| |

Mass | |

| |

| |

Altitude | |

| |

| |

Configuration | |

| |

| |

Ice Accretion | |

| |

| |

Wing Planform | |

| |

| |

Summary of Factor Effects on Stalling Speed | |

| |

| |

The Speed Boundary | |

| |

| |

The Effect of a Gust on the Load Factor | |

| |

| |

Turn Stalling Speed | |

| |

| |

Stalling-Speed Definitions | |

| |

| |

Vclmax | |

| |

| |

Vms | |

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| |

Vms0 | |

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Vms1 | |

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Vs | |

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Vs0 | |

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Vs1 | |

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Vs1g | |

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Vsr | |

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Vsr0 | |

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Vsr1 | |

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| |

Other Types of Stall | |

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| |

The Deep Stall | |

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The Accelerated Stall | |

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The Power-On Stall | |

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The Shock Stall | |

| |

| |

Stall Recovery | |

| |

| |

The Low-speed Stall | |

| |

| |

The Deep Stall | |

| |

| |

The Accelerated Stall | |

| |

| |

The Power-On Stall | |

| |

| |

The Shock Stall | |

| |

| |

The Spin | |

| |

| |

Self-Assessment Exercise 8 | |

| |

| |

| |

Thrust and Power in Level Flight | |

| |

| |

Thrust | |

| |

| |

Analysis of the Thrust Curves | |

| |

| |

Thrust Available | |

| |

| |

Thrust Required | |

| |

| |

Maximum Speed (EAS) | |

| |

| |

The Effect of the Variables on Thrust | |

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| |

Altitude | |

| |

| |

Mass | |

| |

| |

Asymmetric Flight | |

| |

| |

Centre of Gravity | |

| |

| |

Power | |

| |

| |

Analysis of the Power Curves | |

| |

| |

Maximum TAS | |

| |

| |

Vmp and Vmd | |

| |

| |

The Effect of the Variables on Power | |

| |

| |

Altitude | |

| |

| |

Mass | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

Self-Assessment Exercise 9 | |

| |

| |

| |

Advanced Control | |

| |

| |

Wing Torsion and Flexing | |

| |

| |

Wing Flutter | |

| |

| |

Torsional Flexural Flutter | |

| |

| |

Aileron Flutter | |

| |

| |

Torsional Aileron Flutter | |

| |

| |

Flexural Aileron Flutter | |

| |

| |

The Mass Balance | |

| |

| |

Divergence | |

| |

| |

Control Secondary Effects | |

| |

| |

Adverse Yaw | |

| |

| |

Counteraction Devices | |

| |

| |

Rudder/Aileron Coupling | |

| |

| |

Slot/Aileron Coupling | |

| |

| |

Spoiler/Aileron Coupling | |

| |

| |

Differential Aileron Deflection | |

| |

| |

Frise Ailerons | |

| |

| |

Control-Surface Operation | |

| |

| |

Aerodynamic Balance Methods | |

| |

| |

The Hinge Balance | |

| |

| |

The Horn Balance | |

| |

| |

The Internal Balance | |

| |

| |

The Balance Tab | |

| |

| |

The Antibalance Tab | |

| |

| |

The Spring Tab | |

| |

| |

The Servo Tab | |

| |

| |

Primary Control-Surface Trimming | |

| |

| |

Variable Trim Tabs | |

| |

| |

Fixed Trim Tabs | |

| |

| |

Stabilizer Trim Setting | |

| |

| |

Powered Controls | |

| |

| |

Power-Assisted Controls | |

| |

| |

Fully Powered Controls | |

| |

| |

Artificial Feel | |

| |

| |

The Simple System | |

| |

| |

The Servo-Assisted Hydraulic System | |

| |

| |

Fly-by-Wire | |

| |

| |

Self-Assessment Exercise 10 | |

| |

| |

| |

Stability | |

| |

| |

| |

Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Static Stability | |

| |

| |

The Effect of the Variables on Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Directional Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Yaw and Sideslip | |

| |

| |

The Directional Restoring Moment | |

| |

| |

Fin and Rudder Design | |

| |

| |

The Dorsal Fin | |

| |

| |

The Ventral Fin | |

| |

| |

The Moment Arm | |

| |

| |

Aeroplane Design Features Affecting Directional Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Fuselage | |

| |

| |

Wing | |

| |

| |

Dihedral | |

| |

| |

Sweepback | |

| |

| |

Propeller Slipstream | |

| |

| |

Neutral Directional Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Lateral Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Aeroplane Design Features Affecting Lateral Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Increased Lateral Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Decreased Lateral Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Sideslip Angle and Rolling Moment Coefficient | |

| |

| |

Analysis of Design Feature Effects | |

| |

| |

Wing Contribution | |

| |

| |

Dihedral | |

| |

| |

Anhedral | |

| |

| |

Sweepback | |

| |

| |

Wing/Fuselage Interference | |

| |

| |

Shielding Effect | |

| |

| |

Wing Location | |

| |

| |

Fuselage/Fin | |

| |

| |

Fin Size | |

| |

| |

Ventral Fin | |

| |

| |

Handling Considerations | |

| |

| |

Propeller Slipstream | |

| |

| |

Crosswind Landings | |

| |

| |

Flaps | |

| |

| |

Longitudinal Static Stability | |

| |

| |

The Centre of Pressure (CP) | |

| |

| |

The Neutral Point (NP) | |

| |

| |

Types of Static Neutral Point | |

| |

| |

The Stick-Free Static Neutral Point | |

| |

| |

The Stick-Fixed Static Neutral Point | |

| |

| |

The Effect of the CG at the NP | |

| |

| |

The Aerodynamic Centre (AC) | |

| |

| |

The Centre of Gravity (CG) | |

| |

| |

The CG Envelope | |

| |

| |

CG Envelope Limitations | |

| |

| |

CG Movement | |

| |

| |

The Effect of CG at the Limits | |

| |

| |

CG at the Forward Limit | |

| |

| |

CG at the Aft Limit | |

| |

| |

The Static Margin (SM) | |

| |

| |

The Trim Point (TP) | |

| |

| |

Longitudinal Dihedral | |

| |

| |

Aircraft-Design Variations | |

| |

| |

The Effect of the Variables on Longitudinal Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Elevator Deflection | |

| |

| |

Trim | |

| |

| |

The Fuselage | |

| |

| |

Angle of Attack | |

| |

| |

Configuration | |

| |

| |

Trailing-Edge Flaps | |

| |

| |

Undercarriage | |

| |

| |

Stick-Fixed Longitudinal Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Stick-Position Stability | |

| |

| |

Stick-Free Longitudinal Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Stick Force | |

| |

| |

Certification Standard Stick-Force Requirements | |

| |

| |

| |

Class 'A' Aeroplanes CS 25.173(c) | |

| |

| |

| |

Class 'B' Aeroplanes CS 23.173(c) | |

| |

| |

The Effect of CG Position on Stick Force | |

| |

| |

Longitudinal Static Manoeuvre Stability | |

| |

| |

The Manoeuvre Point | |

| |

| |

Factors Affecting Stick Force | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

The Effect of Atmospheric Conditions | |

| |

| |

Ice Accretion | |

| |

| |

Heavy Rain | |

| |

| |

Altitude | |

| |

| |

The Factors Affecting Static Stability | |

| |

| |

Self-Assessment Exercise 11 | |

| |

| |

| |

Dynamic Stability | |

| |

| |

Longitudinal Dynamic Stability | |

| |

| |

The Phugoid | |

| |

| |

Short-Period Oscillation | |

| |

| |

Factors Affecting Longitudinal Dynamic Stability | |

| |

| |

Lateral Dynamic Stability | |

| |

| |

Sideslip | |

| |

| |

Rolling | |

| |

| |

Spiral | |

| |

| |

Dutch Roll | |

| |

| |

Spiral Instability | |

| |

| |

Dutch Roll | |

| |

| |

Asymmetric Thrust | |

| |

| |

Aerodynamic Damping | |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

The Factors Affecting Dynamic Stability | |

| |

| |

| |

General | |

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Longitudinal | |

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Lateral | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 12 | |

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Manoeuvre Aerodynamics | |

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Level-Flight Manouevres | |

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The Manoeuvre Envelope | |

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The Flight Load Factor | |

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Manoeuvre-Envelope Limitations | |

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The Stalling Speed | |

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The 'g' Limitation | |

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The Manoeuvre-Envelope Limiting Parameters | |

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The Manoeuvre-Envelope Maximum-Speed Limitation | |

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Stalling and Design Speed Definitions | |

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Limiting Speeds | |

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The Gust Envelope | |

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The Load Factor | |

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The Gust Load Factor | |

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Buffet | |

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Low-Speed Buffet | |

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High-Speed Buffet | |

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The Buffet Onset Boundary Chart | |

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Turns | |

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The Load Factor in a Turn | |

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The Turn Radius | |

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Rate of Turn | |

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Turn and Slip Indications | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 13 | |

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Climb and Descent Aerodynamics | |

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Climbing Flight | |

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The Forces in a Climb | |

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The Effect of the Variables on the Climb | |

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Altitude | |

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Mass | |

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Flap Setting | |

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Wind Component | |

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Climb Gradient | |

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Climb-Gradient Calculations | |

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Method 1 | |

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Method 2 | |

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Rate of Climb | |

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Rate-of-Climb Calculations | |

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Vx and Vy | |

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Vx | |

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Vy | |

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Aircraft Ceiling | |

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Vy at the Absolute Ceiling | |

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Piston/Propeller Aeroplanes | |

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Jet Aeroplanes | |

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The Effect of the Variables on Vx and Vy | |

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Mass | |

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Flap | |

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Altitude | |

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Temperature | |

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Wind Component | |

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The Effect of Climbing-Speed Variations | |

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Factors Affecting the Climb | |

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The Glide Descent | |

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The Glide Variables | |

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Gliding for Maximum Range | |

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The Effect of the Variables on a Glide Descent | |

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Speed | |

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Wind Component | |

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Mass | |

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Angle of Attack | |

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Flap | |

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Gliding for Maximum Endurance | |

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Climbing and Descending Turns | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 14 | |

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Other Aerodynamic Considerations | |

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High-Speed Flight | |

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General Introduction | |

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High-Speed Definitions | |

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High-Speed Calculations | |

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The Shockwave | |

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Compressibility | |

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Shockwave Formation | |

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Air-Pressure-Wave Patterns | |

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Subsonic | |

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Sonic | |

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Supersonic | |

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The Shockwave Deflection Angle | |

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The High-Speed CP | |

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Critical Mach Number (Mcrit) | |

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The Effect of a Shockwave | |

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Wave Drag | |

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Drag Divergence Mach Number | |

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The Flying Controls | |

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The Effect of the Aerofoil Profile | |

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Thickness/Chord Ratio | |

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Wing Camber | |

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Swept Wings | |

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The Effect of Sweepback | |

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The Advantages of Sweepback | |

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Increased Mcrit | |

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Aerodynamic Effects | |

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The Disadvantages of Sweepback | |

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Remedial Design Features | |

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Low-Speed Ailerons | |

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High-Speed Ailerons | |

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Area Rule | |

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High-Speed-Flight Characteristics | |

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High-Speed Buffet | |

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Tuck Under | |

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The Shock Stall | |

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The Buffet Boundary | |

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Coffin Corner | |

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Speed Instability | |

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The Mach Trimmer | |

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Lateral Instability | |

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The Supercritical Wing | |

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Supersonic Airflow | |

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The Convex Corner Mach Wave | |

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The Concave-Corner Shockwave | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 15 | |

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Propellers | |

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Propeller Definitions | |

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Basic Principles | |

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Factors Affecting Propeller Efficiency | |

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Airspeed | |

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Fixed-Pitch Propellers | |

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Variable-Pitch Propellers | |

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Power Absorption | |

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Propeller-Blade Shape | |

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Blade Length | |

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Blade Chord | |

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Propeller-Blade Number | |

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Solidity | |

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The Effects of a Propeller on Aeroplane Performance | |

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Torque | |

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Slipstream Effect | |

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Asymmetric Blade | |

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Gyroscopic Effect | |

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Propeller Forces and Moments | |

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Centrifugal Force (CF) | |

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Centrifugal Twisting Moment (CTM) | |

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Aerodynamic Twisting Moment (ATM) | |

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Propeller-Blade Positions | |

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The Constant-Speed Unit (CSU) | |

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Propeller Windmilling | |

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Propeller Feathering | |

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Reverse Pitch | |

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The Effect of a Constant Speed Propeller On a Glide Descent | |

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Engine Failure | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 16 | |

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Operational Considerations | |

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Runway-Surface Contamination | |

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Surface Contaminants | |

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Standing Water | |

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Slush | |

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Wet Snow | |

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Dry Snow | |

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Very Dry Snow | |

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Compacted Snow | |

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Ice | |

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Specially Prepared Winter Runway | |

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Mixtures | |

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Contaminant Drag | |

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Water-Equivalent Depth | |

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The Effect of Runway Contamination | |

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Take-off | |

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Aeroplane Contamination | |

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The Effect of Heavy Rain | |

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The Effect of Propeller Icing | |

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The Effect of Airframe Icing | |

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The Effect of Airframe-Surface Damage | |

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The Effect of Turbulence | |

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Windshear | |

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The Effect of Windshear | |

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Energy Loss | |

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Energy Gain | |

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Downdraught | |

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Take-off | |

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Landing | |

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Countering Windshear | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 17 | |

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Conclusion | |

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Summary | |

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Aerofoil-Profile Definitions | |

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Aerofoil-Attitude Definitions | |

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Wing-Shape Definitions | |

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High-Speed Definitions | |

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Propeller Definitions | |

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V Speeds | |

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PoF Formulae | |

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Drag | |

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Wing Loading/Load Factor | |

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Stalling Speed Calculations | |

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Mass Change | |

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Load Factor | |

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Turn | |

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Design Manoeuvre Speed (Va) | |

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Turn Details | |

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Radius of Turn | |

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Rate of Turn | |

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ClimbCalculations | |

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Descent Calculations | |

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Maximum Glide Range | |

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Mach Angle (_) Calculation | |

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KEY FACTS | |

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Stalling | |

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The Maximum Coefficient of Lift (Clmax) | |

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The Critical Angle | |

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The Stalling Speed | |

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Stability | |

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Static Stability | |

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Dynamic Stability | |

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The Stick Force | |

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The Gust Load Factor | |

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Propellers | |

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Propeller Efficiency | |

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Fixed Pitch Angle of Attack | |

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Propeller Gyroscopic Effect | |

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The Effect of the Variables on Performance | |

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Airframe Surface | |

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Airframe Surface | |

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Altitude | |

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Aspect Ratio | |

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Camber | |

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CG Position | |

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Flap | |

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Sweepback | |

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Dihedral | |

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Mass | |

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Self-Assessment Exercise 18 | |

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Solutions | |

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Vx and Vy Mathematical Proof | |

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Index | |