Practical Field Ecology A Project Guide

ISBN-10: 0470694297

ISBN-13: 9780470694299

Edition: 2011

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Description:

This book introduces experimental design and data analysis / interpretation as well as field monitoring skills for both plants and animals. Clearly structured throughout and written in a student-friendly manner, the main emphasis of the book concentrates on the techniques required to design a field based ecological survey and shows how to execute an appropriate sampling regime. The book evaluates appropriate methods, including the problems associated with various techniques and their inherent flaws (e.g. low sample sizes, large amount of field or laboratory work, high cost etc). This provides a resource base outlining details from the planning stage, into the field, guiding through sampling and finally through organism identification in the laboratory and computer based data analysis and interpretation. The text is divided into twelve distinct chapters. The first chapter covers planning, including health and safety together with information on a variety of statistical techniques for examining and analysing data. Following a chapter dealing with site characterisation and general aspects of species identification, subsequent chapters describe the techniques used to survey and census particular groups of organisms. The final chapter covers interpreting and presenting data and writing up the research. The emphasis here is on appropriate wording of interpretation and structure and content of the report.
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Book details

Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 4/13/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 388
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.034
Language: English

Tables
Figures
Boxes
Case Studies
Preface
Acknowledgements
Preparation
Choosing a topic for study
Ecological research questions
Monitoring individual species and groups of species
Monitoring species richness
Monitoring population sizes and density
Monitoring community structure
Monitoring behaviour
A note of caution
Creating aims, objectives and hypotheses
Reviewing the literature
Primary literature
Secondary literature
Other sources of information
Search terms
Reading papers
Practical considerations
Legal aspects
Health and safety issues
Implementation
Time management
Project design and data management
Designing and setting up experiments and surveys
Types of data
Sampling designs
Planning statistical analysis
Choosing sampling methods
Summary
Monitoring site characteristics
Site selection
Site characterisation
Habitat mapping
Examination of landscape scale
Measuring microclimatic variables
Monitoring substrates
Monitoring water
Other physical attributes
Measuring biological attributes
Identification
Sampling static organisms
Sampling techniques for static organisms
Quadrat sampling
Pin-frames
Transects
Distribution of static organisms
Forestry techniques
Sampling mobile organisms
General issues
Distribution of mobile organisms
Direct observation
Behaviour
Indirect methods
Capture techniques
Marking individuals
Radio-tracking
Invertebrates
Direct observation
Indirect methods
Capture techniques
Marking individuals
Capturing aquatic invertebrates
Netting
Suction sampling
Benthic coring
Drags, dredges and grabs
Wet extraction
Artificial substrate samplers
Baited traps
Capturing soil-living invertebrates
Dry sieving
Floatation and phase-separation
Tullgren funnels as a method of dry extraction
Chemical extraction
Electrical extraction
Capturing ground-active invertebrates
Pitfall traps
Suction samplers
Emergence traps
Capturing invertebrates from plants
Pootering
Sweep netting
Beating
Fogging
Capturing airborne invertebrates
Sticky traps
Using attractants
Refuges
Flight interception (window and malaise) traps
Light traps
Rotary traps
Water traps
Fish
Direct observation
Indirect methods
Capture techniques
Marking individuals
Amphibians
Direct observation
Indirect methods
Capture techniques
Marking individuals
Reptiles
Direct observation
Indirect methods
Capture techniques
Marking individuals
Birds
Direct observation
Indirect methods
Capture techniques
Marking individuals
Mammals
Direct observation
Indirect methods
Capture techniques
Marking individuals
Analysing and interpreting information
Keys to tests
Exploring and describing data
Transforming and screening data
Spatial and temporal distributions
Population estimation techniques: densities and population sizes
Richness and diversity
Similarity, dissimilarity and distance coefficients
Recording descriptive statistics
Testing hypotheses using basic statistical tests and simple general linear models
Differences between samples
Relationships between variables
Associations between frequency distributions
More advanced general linear models for predictive analysis
Multiple regression
Analysis of covariance and multivariate analysis of variance
Discriminant function analysis
Generalized linear models
Extensions of the generalized linear model
Statistical methods to examine pattern and structure in communities: classification, indicator species and ordination
Classification
Indicator species analysis
Ordination
Presenting the information
Structure
Title
Abstract
Acknowledgements
Contents
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
References
Appendices
Writing style
Tense
Numbers
Abbreviations
Punctuation
Choice of font
Common mistakes
Computer files
Summary
References
Glossary of statistical terms
Index
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