Educational Testing and Measurement Classroom Application and Practice

ISBN-10: 047052281X

ISBN-13: 9780470522813

Edition: 9th 2010

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Description: This accessible resource equips educators with practical assessment strategies for today′s challenges in measuring student progress. It details the national policy changes that have fostered the ongoing changes in general education and special education testing and assessment practices. The ninth edition integrates updated references, readings and examples to ensure a current look at the field. A new chapter introduces IDEIA, the RTI model, and the issues, controversies and implementation challenges and successes. Sections have also been added to multiple chapters to ensure the integration of the RTI model with the traditional content. Educators will be able to apply this information to meet today′s challenges in measuring student progress

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Book details

List price: $141.95
Edition: 9th
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/18/2009
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 512
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.222
Language: English

An Introduction to Contemporary Educational Testing And Measurement
Tests Are Only Tools: Their Usefulness Can Vary
Why We Developed This Text: Enhancing Test Usefulness
Technical Adequacy
Test User Competency
Matching the Test's Intended Purpose
Matching Diverse Test-Takers to the Test
Test Results and Diversity Considerations
Tests Are Only Tools: A Video Beats a Photo
Defining Some Test-Related Terms
Tests, Assessments, and the Assessment Process
Types of Tests/Assessments
Recent Developments: Impact on Classroom Testing and Measurement
Education Reform Meets Special Education Reform: NCLB and IDEIA
The Impact on Regular Education Teachers of the IDEIA and NCLB
Other Trends: Technology, Globalization, and International Competitiveness
Competency Testing for Teachers
Increased Interest from Professional Groups
A Professional Association-Book Publisher Information Initiative
Effects on the Classroom Teacher
About the Text
What if You're �No Good in Math�
Summary
For Discussion
High-Stakes Testing
Comparing NCLB and State High-Stakes Testing Programs
High-Stakes Testing: A Nationwide Phenomenon
High-Stakes Tests Are Only Tools
Why Does High-Stakes Testing Matter?
Promotion and Graduation Decisions Affect Students
Principal and Teacher Incentives Are Linked to HST Performance
Property Values, Business Decisions, and Politics and HST
The Lake Wobegon Effect and HST
The History of High-Stakes Testing
Education Reform
Standards-Based Reform
Types of High-Stakes Tests
Criterion-Referenced High-Stakes Tests
Norm-Referenced High-Stakes Tests
Benchmark Tests and High-Stakes Tests
The High-Stakes Testing Backlash
Is There Really a High-Stakes Testing Backlash?
What Do National Organizations Say About High-Stakes Tests?
AERA's Twelve Conditions for HST Programs
How Can a Teacher Use the Twelve Conditions?
Helping Students (and Yourself) Prepare for High-Stakes Tests
Focus on the Task, Not Your Feelings About It
Inform Students and Parents About the Importance of the Test
Teach Test-Taking Skills as Part of Regular Instruction
As the Test Day Approaches, Respond to Student Questions Openly and Directly
Take Advantage of Whatever Preparation Materials Are Available
Summary
For Discussion
Response-to-Intervention (RTI) and the Regular Classroom Teacher
What Is RTI?
What if You Have Not Heard of RTI Before?
How New Is RTI?
Do Regular Education Teachers Need to Know About RTI?
An RTI Scenario
How Important Is RTI to Regular Education Teachers?
Can a Special Education Law Reform Regular Education?
How Is RTI Supposed to Help Students and Schools?
RTI Definitions, Components, and Implementation Approaches
RTI Definitions
RTI Components
RTI Implementation Approaches
How Widely Is RTI Being Implemented1?
Some Benefits of RTI
RTI: The Promise and Some Controversies
Technical Issues: Reliability, Validity, and Fairness
Implementation Issues
The Purpose Of Testing
Testing, Accountability, and the Classroom Teacher
Types of Educational Decisions
A Pinch of Salt
�Pinching� in the Classroom
What to Measure
How to Measure
Written Tests
Summary
For Discussion
Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests and Content Validity Evidence
Defining Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
Comparing Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
Differences in the Construction of Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Tests and Linguistic and Cultural Diversity
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Tests and Validity Evidence
A Three-Stage Model of Classroom Measurement
Why Objectives? Why Not Just Write Test Items?
Where Do Goals Come From?
Are There Different Kinds of Goals and Objectives?
How Can Instructional Objectives Make a Teacher's Job Easier?
Summary
For Discussion
Measuring Learning Outcomes
Writing Instructional Objectives
Identifying Learning Outcomes
Identifying Observable and Directly Measurable Learning Outcomes
Stating Conditions
Stating Criterion Levels
Keeping It Simple and Straightforward
Matching Test Items to Instructional Objectives
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Cognitive Domain
Affective Domain
The Psychomotor Domain
The Test Blueprint
Content Outline
Categories
Number of Items
Functions
Summary
For Practice
Writing Objective Test Items
Which Format?
True-False Items
Suggestions for Writing True-False Items
Matching Items
Faults Inherent in Matching Items
Suggestions for Writing Matching Items
Multiple-Choice Items
Higher-Level Multiple-Choice Questions
Suggestions for Writing Multiple-Choice Items
Completion Items
Suggestions for Writing Completion Items
Gender and Racial Bias in Test Items
Guidelines for Writing Test Items
Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Objective Item Formats
Summary
For Practice
Writing Essay Test Items
What Is an Essay Item?
Essay Items Should Measure Complex Cognitive Skills or Processes
Essay Items: Extended or Restricted Response
Examples of Restricted Response Essays
Pros and Cons of Essay Items
Advantages of the Essay Item
Disadvantages of the Essay Item
Suggestions for Writing Essay Items
Scoring Essay Questions
Scoring Extended Response and Higher Level Questions
General Essay Scoring Suggestions
Assessing Knowledge Organization
Open-Book Questions and Exams
Some Open-Book Techniques
Guidelines for Planning Essays, Knowledge Organization, and Open-Book Questions and Exams
Summary
For Practice
Performance-Based Assessment
Performance Tests: Direct Measures of Competence
Performance Tests Can Assess Processes and Products
Performance Tests Can Be Embedded in Lessons
Performance Tests Can Assess Affective and Social Skills
Developing Performance Tests for Your Learners
Deciding What to Test
Designing the Assessment Context
Specifying the Scoring Rubrics
Specifying Testing Constraints
A Final Word
Summary
For Discussion and Practice
Portfolio Assessment
Ensuring Validity of the Portfolio
Developing Portfolio Assessments
Deciding on the Purposes for a Portfolio
Identifying Cognitive Skills and Dispositions
Deciding Who Will Plan the Portfolio
Deciding Which Products to Put in the Portfolio and How Many Samples of Each Product
Building the Portfolio Rubrics
Developing a Procedure to Aggregate All Portfolio Ratings
Determining the Logistics
Summary
For Practice
Administering, Analyzing, And Improving The Test Or Assessment
Assembling the Test
Packaging the Test
Reproducing the Test
Administering the Test
Scoring the Test
Analyzing the Test
Quantitative Item Analysis
Qualitative Item Analysis
Item Analysis Modifications for the Criterion-Referenced Test
Debriefing
Debriefing Guidelines
The Process of Evaluating Classroom Achievement
Summary
For Practice
Marks And Marking Systems
What Is the Purpose of a Mark?
Why Be Concerned About Marking?
What Should a Mark Reflect?
Marking Systems
Types of Comparisons
Types of Symbols
Combining and Weighting the Components of a Mark
Who Is the Better Teacher?
Combining Grades into a Single Mark
Practical Approaches to Equating Before Weighting in the Busy Classroom
Front-End Equating
Back-End Equating
Summary
For Practice
Summarizing Data And Measures Of Central Tendency
What Are Statistics?
Why Use Statistics?
Tabulating Frequency Data
The List
The Simple Frequency Distribution
The Grouped Frequency Distribution
Steps in Constructing a Grouped Frequency Distribution
Graphing Data
The Bar Graph, or Histogram
The Frequency Polygon
The Smooth Curve
Measures of Central Tendency
The Mean
The Median
The Mode
The Measures of Central Tendency in Various Distributions
Summary
For Practice
Variability, The Normal Distribution, And Converted Scores
The Range
The Semi-Interquartile Range (SIQR)
The Standard Deviation
The Deviation Score Method for Computing the Standard Deviation
The Raw Score Method for Computing the Standard Deviation
The Normal Distribution
Properties of the Normal Distribution
Converted Scores
z-Scores
T-Scores
Summary
For Practice
Correlation
The Correlation Coefficient
Strength of a Correlation
Direction of a Correlation
Scatterplots
Where Does r Come From?
Causality
Other Interpretive Cautions
Summary
For Practice
Validity Evidence
Why Evaluate Tests?
Types of Validity Evidence
Content Validity Evidence
Criterion-Related Validity Evidence
Construct Validity Evidence
What Have We Been Saying? A Review
Interpreting Validity Coefficients
Content Validity Evidence
Concurrent and Predictive Validity Evidence
Summary
For Practice
Reliability
Methods of Estimating Reliability
Test-Retest or Stability
Alternate Forms or Equivalence
Internal Consistency
Interpreting Reliability Coefficients
Summary
For Practice
Error-What Is It?
The Standard Error of Measurement
Using the Standard Error of Measurement
More Applications
Standard Deviation or Standard Error of Measurement?
Why All the Fuss About Error?
Error Within Test-Takers
Error Within the Test
Error in Test Administration
Error in Scoring
Sources of Error Influencing Various Reliability Coefficients
Test-Retest
Alternate Forms
Internal Consistency
Band Interpretation
Steps: Band Interpretation
A Final Word
Summary
For Practice
Standardized Tests
What Is a Standardized Test?
Do Test Stimuli, Administration, and Scoring Have to Be Standardized?
Standardized Testing: Effects of Accommodations and Alternative Assessments
Uses of Standardized Achievement Tests
Will Performance and Portfolio Assessment Make Standardized Tests Obsolete?
Administering Standardized Tests
Types of Scores Offered for Standardized Achievement Tests
Grade Equivalents
Age Equivalents
Percentile Ranks
Standard Scores
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Test and Student Factors
Test-Related Factors
Student-Related Factors
Aptitude-Achievement Discrepancies
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Parent-Teacher Conferences and Educational Decision Making
An Example: Pressure to Change an Educational Placement
A Second Example: Pressure from the Opposite Direction
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Score Reports from Publishers
The Press-On Label
A Criterion-Referenced Skills Analysis or Mastery Report
An Individual Performance Profile
Other Publisher Reports and Services
Summary
For Practice
Types of Standardized Tests
Standardized Achievement Tests
Achievement Test Batteries, or Survey Batteries
Single-Subject Achievement Tests
Diagnostic Achievement Aptitude Tests
Standardized Academic Aptitude Tests420
The History of Academic Aptitude Testing
Stability of IQ Scores
What Do IQ Tests Predict?
Individually Administered Academic Aptitude Tests
Group-Administered Academic Aptitude Tests
Standardized Personality Assessment Instruments
What Is Personality?
Objective Personality Tests
Projective Personality Tests
Summary
For Discussion
In The Classroom: A Summary Dialogue
High-Stakes Testing and NCLB
Response-to-intervention (RTI)
Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Tests
New Responsibilities for Teachers Under IDEIA
Instructional Objectives
The Test Blueprint
Essay Items and the Essay Scoring Guides
Reliability, Validity Evidence, and Test Statistics
Grades And Marks
Some Final Thoughts
Math Skills Review
Preparing For The Praxis II: Principles Of Learning And Teaching Assessment
Determining The Median When There Are Multiple Tied Middle Scores
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation
Statistics And Measurement Texts
Answers for Practice Questions
Suggested Readings
References
Credits
Index
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