Cochlear Hearing Loss Physiological, Psychological and Technical Issues

ISBN-10: 047051633X
ISBN-13: 9780470516331
Edition: 2nd 2007
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Description: Since the first edition was published in 1998, considerable advances have been made in the fields of pitch perception and speech perception. In addition, there have been major changes in the way that hearing aids work, and the features they offer.  More...

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Book details

List price: $121.99
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/28/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 346
Size: 5.75" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.100
Language: English

Since the first edition was published in 1998, considerable advances have been made in the fields of pitch perception and speech perception. In addition, there have been major changes in the way that hearing aids work, and the features they offer. This book will provide an understanding of the changes in perception that take place when a person has cochlear hearing loss so the reader understands not only what does happen, but why it happens. It interrelates physiological and perceptual data and presents both this and basic concepts in an integrated manner. The goal is to convey an understanding of the perceptual changes associated with cochlear hearing loss, of the difficulties faced by the hearing-impaired person, and the limitations of current hearing aids.

Preface
Physiological Aspects of Cochlear Hearing Loss
Introduction
Linear and Nonlinear Systems
Structure and Function of the Outer and Middle Ear
Structure and Function of the Normal Cochlea
The cochlea, the basilar membrane and the organ of Corti
Tuning on the basilar membrane
The nonlinearity of input-output functions on the basilar membrane
Two-tone suppression
Combination tone generation
Responses of the basilar membrane to complex sounds
Otoacoustic emissions
Neural Responses in the Normal Auditory Nerve
Spontaneous firing rates and thresholds
Tuning curves and iso-rate contours
Rate-versus-level functions
Two-tone suppression
Phase locking
Types of Hearing Loss
Physiology of the Damaged Cochlea
Basilar membrane responses
Neural responses
Structure-function correlation
Otoacoustic emissions
Phase locking
Conclusions
Absolute Thresholds
Introduction
Measures of Absolute Threshold
Minimum audible pressure (MAP)
Minimum audible field (MAF)
Comparison of MAP and MAF
The audiogram
Descriptions of the Severity of Hearing Loss
Causes of Hearing Loss Due to Cochlear Damage
Perceptual Consequences of Elevated Absolute Thresholds
Masking, Frequency Selectivity and Basilar Membrane Nonlinearity
Introduction
The Measurement of Frequency Selectivity Using Masking
Introduction
The power-spectrum model
Estimating the shape of a filter
Estimating Frequency Selectivity from Masking Experiments
Psychophysical tuning curves
The notched-noise method
Characteristics of the Auditory Filter in Normal Hearing
Variation with centre frequency
Variation with level
Summary
Masking Patterns and Excitation Patterns
Masking patterns
Relationship of the auditory filter to the excitation pattern
Changes in excitation patterns with level
Possible effects of suppression
Non-Simultaneous Masking
Basic properties of non-simultaneous masking
Evidence for suppression from non-simultaneous masking
The enhancement of frequency selectivity revealed in non-simultaneous masking
Relation between the growth of forward masking and the basilar membrane input-output function
The Audibility of Partials in Complex Tones
Effects of Cochlear Damage on Frequency Selectivity in Simultaneous Masking
Complicating factors
Psychophysical tuning curves
Auditory filter shapes measured with notched noise
The Use of Masking to Diagnose Dead Regions
The threshold-equalizing noise (TEN) test
The TEN(HL) test
Prevalence of dead regions assessed using the TEN(HL) test
Effects of Cochlear Damage on Forward Masking and Suppression
Effects of Cochlear Hearing Loss on BM Input-output Functions 88 XII Perceptual Consequences of Reduced Frequency Selectivity, Dead Regions, Loss of Suppression and Steeper BM Input-output Functions
Susceptibility to masking
Timbre perception
Perceptual consequences of dead regions
Loudness Perception and Intensity Resolution
Introduction
Loudness Perception for Normally Hearing People
Equal-loudness contours and loudness level
The scaling of loudness
The detection of intensity changes
Effects of Cochlear Hearing Loss on Loudness Perception
A Model of Normal Loudness Perception
A Model of Loudness Perception Applied to Cochlear Hearing Loss
Introduction
Elevation of absolute threshold
Reduced compressive nonlinearity
Reduced inner hair cell/neural function
Reduced frequency selectivity
Complete loss of functioning IHCs or neurones (dead regions)
Using the model to account for loudness recruitment
Effects of Bandwidth on Loudness
Normal hearing
Impaired hearing
Effects of Cochlear Hearing Loss on Intensity Resolution
Perceptual Consequences of Altered Loudness Perception
Consequences of loudness recruitment and reduced dynamic range
Perceptual consequences of reduced loudness summation
Perceptual consequences of altered intensity discrimination
Temporal Resolution and Temporal Integration
Introduction
Modelling Within-Channel Temporal Resolution in Normal Hearing
Bandpass filtering
The nonlinearity
The sliding temporal integrator
The decision device
Characterizing the nonlinear device and the sliding temporal integrator
Temporal Resolution in Normal Hearing
The effect of centre frequency on gap detection
Temporal modulation transfer functions
The rate of recovery from forward masking
Temporal Resolution in People with Cochlear Damage
The influence of sound level on gap detection and the rate of decay of forward masking
The influence of audible bandwidth on temporal modulation transfer functions and gap detection
The influence of changes in the compressive nonlinearity
Temporal Integration at Threshold
Temporal integration in normally hearing people
Temporal integration in people with cochlear hearing loss
Explanations for reduced temporal integration in people with cochlear hearing loss
Temporal Integration at Suprathreshold Levels
Perceptual Consequences of Abnormal Temporal Processing in People with Cochlear Hearing Loss
Consequences of abnormal temporal resolution
Consequences of reduced temporal integration
Pitch Perception and Frequency Discrimination
Introduction
Theories of Pitch Perception
The Perception of the Pitch of Pure Tones by Normally Hearing People
The frequency discrimination of pure tones
The perception of musical intervals
The effect of level on pitch
Frequency Discrimination of Pure Tones by People with Cochlear Hearing Loss
Difference limens for frequency (DLFs)
Frequency modulation detection limens (FMDLs)
The Perception of Pure-Tone Pitch for Frequencies Falling in a Dead Region
Pitch Anomalies in the Perception of Pure Tones
The Pitch Perception of Complex Tones by Normally Hearing People
The phenomenon of the missing fundamental
Discrimination of the repetition rate of complex tones
Theories of Pitch Perception for Complex Tones
The representation of a complex tone in the peripheral auditory system
Spectro-temporal pitch theories
The relative importance of envelope and temporal fine structure
Pitch Perception of Complex Tones by People with Cochlear Hearing Loss
Theoretical considerations
Experimental studies
Perceptual Consequences of Altered Frequency Discrimination and Pitch Perception
Effects on speech perception
Effects on music perception
Spatial Hearing and Advantages of Binaural Hearing
Introduction
The Localization of Sinusoids
Cues for localization
Performance of normally hearing people in localization and lateralization
Performance of hearing-impaired people in localization and lateralization
The Localization of Complex Sounds
The role of transients and across-frequency comparisons
Performance of normally hearing people
Performance of people with cochlear hearing loss
Reasons for large interaural time difference and interaural level difference thresholds in people with cochlear hearing loss
The Cone of Confusion, Head Movements and Pinna Cues
The cone of confusion
The role of head movements
Information provided by the pinnae
Localization using pinna cues by normally hearing and hearing-impaired people
General Conclusions on Sound Localization
The Precedence Effect
The precedence effect for normal hearing
The precedence effect for impaired hearing
Binaural Masking Level Differences (MLDs)
MLDs for normally hearing people
Mechanisms underlying MLDs
MLDs for people with cochlear hearing loss
Possible reasons for smaller MLDs in people with cochlear damage
Head-Shadow Effects
Benefits of head shadow for normally hearing people
Benefits of head shadow for hearing-impaired people
Release from Informational Masking
Diotic Advantages
Perceptual Consequences of Abnormal Binaural and Spatial Hearing in People with Cochlear Damage
Speech Perception
Introduction
The Magnitude of the Noise Problem
The Role of Audibility
The Articulation Index (AI) and Speech Intelligibility Index (SII)
Use of the AI or SII to predict speech intelligibility for the hearing impaired
The intelligibility of speech in noise at high overall levels
Comparison of detection and recognition for speech in noise
The intelligibility of speech in quiet at high overall levels
Simulation of hearing loss by selective filtering (frequency-dependent attenuation)
Simulation of hearing loss by masking
Conclusions on the role of audibility
Influence of Dead Regions on Speech Perception
Correlation Between Psychoacoustic Abilities and Speech Perception
Assessing the Effects of Frequency Selectivity on Vowel and Consonant Perception
Consonant perception
Vowel perception
Influence of Loss of Sensitivity to Temporal Fine Structure
The Use of Simulations to Assess the Importance of Psychoacoustic Factors in Speech Perception
Simulations of loudness recruitment combined with threshold elevation
Simulations of reduced frequency selectivity
Simulation of the combined effects of threshold elevation, recruitment and reduced frequency selectivity
Simulation of reduced temporal resolution
Conclusions
Hearing Aids
Introduction
Linear Amplification
The difficulty of restoring audibility using linear aids
Prescriptive fitting rules for linear hearing aids
Compression Amplification
Basic characteristics of automatic gain control systems
Varieties of automatic gain control systems
Rationales for the use of multi-band compression (and noise reduction)
Research on the effectiveness of multi-band syllabic compression
Methods for initial fitting of hearing aids with multi-band compression
Methods for fine tuning hearing aids with multi-band compression
Slow-acting automatic gain control systems
Comparisons of slow-acting and fast-acting systems
General conclusions about compression
Some General Problems with Hearing Aids
Inadequate gain at high frequencies
Acoustic feedback
Peakiness of frequency response
The occlusion effect
Time delays
Methods for Improving the Speech-to-Noise Ratio
Multi-channel noise reduction
Directional microphones
Binaural processing algorithms
Transposition Aids for Severe and Profound Hearing Loss
Cochlear Implants
Concluding Remarks
Glossary
References
Index

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