Medical Statistics from Scratch An Introduction for Health Professionals

ISBN-10: 0470513012
ISBN-13: 9780470513019
Edition: 2nd 2007
Authors: David Bowers
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Description: This long awaited second edition of this bestseller continues to provide a comprehensive, user friendly, down-to-earth guide to elementary statistics. The book presentsa detailed account of the most important procedures for the analysis of data,  More...

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Book details

List price: $61.99
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/24/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 300
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.342
Language: English

This long awaited second edition of this bestseller continues to provide a comprehensive, user friendly, down-to-earth guide to elementary statistics. The book presentsa detailed account of the most important procedures for the analysis of data, from the calculation of simple proportions, to a variety of statistical tests, and the use of regression models for modeling of clinical outcomes. The level of mathematics is kept to a minimum to make the material easily accessible to the novice, and a multitude of illustrative cases are included in every chapter, drawn from the current research literature.The new edition has been completely revised and updated and includes new chapters on basic quantitative methods, measuring survival, measurement scales, diagnostic testing, bayesian methods, meta-analysis and systematic reviews.

Preface to the 2nd Edition
Preface to the 1st Edition
Introduction
Some Fundamental Stuff
First things first - the nature of data
Learning Objectives
Variables and data
The good, the bad, and the ugly - types of variable
Categorical variables
Metric variables
How can I tell what type of variable I am dealing with?
Descriptive Statistics
Describing data with tables
Learning Objectives
What is descriptive statistics?
The frequency table
Describing data with charts
Learning Objectives
Picture it!
Charting nominal and ordinal data
Charting discrete metric data
Charting continuous metric data
Charting cumulative data
Describing data from its shape
Learning Objectives
The shape of things to come
Describing data with numeric summary values
Learning Objectives
Numbers R us
Summary measures of location
Summary measures of spread
Standard deviation and the Normal distribution
Getting the Data
Doing it right first time - designing a study
Learning Objectives
Hey ho! Hey ho! It's off to work we go
Collecting the data - types of sample
Types of study
Confounding
Matching
Comparing cohort and case-control designs
Getting stuck in - experimental studies
From Little to Large - Statistical Inference
From samples to populations - making inferences
Learning Objectives
Statistical inference
Probability, risk and odds
Learning Objectives
Chance would be a fine thing - the idea of probability
Calculating probability
Probability and the Normal distribution
Risk
Odds
Why you can't calculate risk in a case-control study
The link between probability and odds
The risk ratio
The odds ratio
Number needed to treat (NNT)
The Informed Guess - Confidence Interval Estimation
Estimating the value of a single population parameter - the idea of confidence intervals
Learning Objectives
Confidence interval estimation for a population mean
Confidence interval for a population proportion
Estimating a confidence interval for the median of a single population
Estimating the difference between two population parameters
Learning Objectives
What's the difference?
Estimating the difference between the means of two independent populations - using a method based on the two-sample t test
Estimating the difference between two matched population means - using a method based on the matched-pairs t test
Estimating the difference between two independent population proportions
Estimating the difference between two independent population medians - the Mann-Whitney rank-sums method
Estimating the difference between two matched population medians - Wilcoxon signed-ranks method
Estimating the ratio of two population parameters
Learning Objectives
Estimating ratios of means, risks and odds
Putting it to the Test
Testing hypotheses about the difference between two population parameters
Learning Objectives
The research question and the hypothesis test
A brief summary of a few of the commonest tests
Some examples of hypothesis tests from practice
Confidence intervals versus hypothesis testing
Nobody's perfect - types of error
The power of a test
Maximising power - calculating sample size
Rules of thumb
Testing hypotheses about the ratio of two population parameters
Learning Objectives
Testing the risk ratio
Testing the odds ratio
Testing hypotheses about the equality of population proportions: the chi-squared test
Learning Objectives
Of all the tests in all the world...the chi-squared (x[superscript 2]) test
Getting up Close
Measuring the association between two variables
Learning Objectives
Association
The correlation coefficient
Measuring agreement
Learning Objectives
To agree or not agree: that is the question
Cohen's kappa
Measuring agreement with ordinal data - weighted kappa
Measuring the agreement between two metric continuous variables
Getting into a Relationship
Straight line models: linear regression
Learning Objectives
Health warning!
Relationship and association
The linear regression model
Model building and variable selection
Curvy models: logistic regression
Learning Objectives
A second health warning!
Binary dependent variables
The logistic regression model
Two More Chapters
Measuring survival
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Calculating survival probabilities and the proportion surviving: the Kaplan-Meier table
The Kaplan-Meier chart
Determining median survival time
Comparing survival with two groups
Systematic review and meta-analysis
Learning Objectives
Introduction
Systematic review
Publication and other biases
The funnel plot
Combining the studies
Table of random numbers
Solutions to Exercises
References
Index

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