Practical Process Control Tuning and Troubleshooting

ISBN-10: 0470381930

ISBN-13: 9780470381939

Edition: 2009

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Description: Practical Process Control (loop tuning and troubleshooting). This book differs from others on the market in several respects. First, the presentation is totally in the time domain (the word "LaPlace" is nowhere to be found). The focus of the book is actually troubleshooting, not tuning. If a controller is "tunable", the tuning procedure will be straightforward and uneventful. But if a loop is "untunable", difficulties will be experienced, usually early in the tuning effort. The nature of any difficulty provides valuable clues to what is rendering the loop "untunable". For example, if reducing the controller gain leads to increased oscillations, one should look for possible interaction with one or more other loops. Tuning difficulties are always symptoms of other problems; effective troubleshooting involves recognizing the clues, identifying the root cause of the problem, and making corrections. Furthermore, most loops are rendered "untunable" due to some aspect of the steady-state behavior of the process. Consequently, the book focuses more on the relationship of process control to steady-state process characteristics than to dynamic process characteristics. One prerequisite to effective troubleshooting is to "demystify" some of the characteristics of the PID control equations. One unique aspect of this book is that it explains in the time domain all aspects of the PID control equation (including as the difference between the parallel and series forms of the PID, the reset feedback form of the PID equation, reset windup protection, etc.) The book stresses an appropriate P&I (process and instrumentation) diagram as critical to successful tuning. If the P&I is not right, tuning difficulties are inevitable. Developing and analyzing P&I diagrams is a critical aspect of troubleshooting.

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Book details

List price: $120.00
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: American Institute of Chemical Engineers
Publication date: 1/27/2009
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 431
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.584
Language: English

Preface
Introduction
The Process Industries and Regulatory Control
P&I Diagrams
Regulatory Control Example
Control Loop
Example Process
Cascade Control
Summary
Literature Cited
Gain or Sensitivity
Process Design Versus Process Control
What Do We by "Process Gain"
Linear Versus Nonlinear Processes
Operating Lines and Gains from Process Tests
Action
Impact of Process Nonlinearities on Tuning
Scheduled Tuning
Heat Transfer Processes
Vacuum Processes
Summary
Literature Cited
Process Dynamics
First-Order Lag and Time Constant
Integrating Process
Self Regulated Versus Non-Self-Regulated Processes
Dead Time
Measurement Issues
Effect Dead Time on Loop Performance
Mixing
Process Models
Approximating Time Constants
Ultimate Gain and Ultimate Period
Damping
Simple Performance Measures
The Integral Criteria
Summary
Controller Modes and Mode Selection
Mode Characteristics
Options for Tuning coefficients
Computing the PID Control Equation
Mode Combinations
Flow Control
Level Control
Nonlinear Algorithms
Level-to-Flow Cascade
Summary
Proportional Mode
Control Equation
Regulators
The Proportional Band
Bumpless Transfer
Set-Point Changes
Disturbance or Load Changes
Proportional Control of Simple Models
Adjusting the Controller Gain
Tuning
Summary
Integral Mode
Control Equation
Open-Loop Behavior
Effect of Reset Time
PI Control of Simple Models
Tuning
Speed of Response
Avoiding Sloppy Tuning
Suppressing the Proportional Kick
Windup Protection
Summary
Literature Cited
Derivative Mode
Control Equation
Incorporating Derivative into the Control Equation
PID Control Equations
Effect of Derivative Time
Getting the Most from Derivative
PID Control of Simple Models
Tuning
Summary
Tuning Methods
What Is a Tuning Method
Process Characterizations
Ziegler-Nichols Closed Loop Method
The Relay Method
Open-Loop Methods
Graphical Constructions and Nonlinear Regressio
Ziegler Nichols Open-Loop Method
The Lambda Method
IMC Method
Integral Criteria Method
Summary
Literature Cited
Measurement Devices
Steady-State Behavior
Very Small Process Gain
Temperature Measurements
Filtering and Smoothing
Summary
Final Control Elements
Valves and Flow Systems
Valve Sizing
Inherent Valve Characteristics
Flow System Dominated by Control Valve
Flow System Dominated by Process
Valve Nonidealities
Valve Positioner
On-Off Control
Time Proportioning Control
Variable Speed Pumping
Summary
Literature Cited
Process and Instrumentation Diagrams
Developing P&I Diagrams
P&I Diagram for a Chlorine Vaporizer
Simple PID Control Configuration
Temperature-to-Flow Cascade
Temperature-to-Flow-Ratio Cascade
Steam Heater with Control Valve on Steam
Steam Heater with Control Valve on Condensate
Liquid Bypass Arrangements
Summary
Literature Cited
Loop Interaction
Multivariable Processes
Off-Gas System
Flow and Pressure Control
Gains and Sensitivities
Effect of Interaction on Loop Performance and Tuning
Dynamics
Addressing Interaction Problems
Summary
Literature Cited
Index
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