Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering

ISBN-10: 0470189304
ISBN-13: 9780470189306
Edition: 3rd 2009
Authors: Henry W. Ott
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Description: This expanded third edition of the most popular book on electromagnetic compatibility reflects all of the latest advances and developments in the field. It demonstrates how and why noise in electronic digital systems can be avoided or minimized.  More...

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Book details

List price: $145.00
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 8/24/2009
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 872
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.75" tall
Weight: 3.014
Language: English

This expanded third edition of the most popular book on electromagnetic compatibility reflects all of the latest advances and developments in the field. It demonstrates how and why noise in electronic digital systems can be avoided or minimized. Although much will be added (including five new chapters) and updated in this edition, virtually everything that was in the second edition is still applicable and will remain in the third edition. This book is essential for design engineers in the electronics industry and students in EMC.

Preface
EMC Theory
Electromagnetic Compatibility
Introduction
Noise and Interference
Designing for Electromagnetic Compatibility
Engineering Documentation and EMC
United States' EMC Regulations
FCC Regulations
FCC Part 15, Subpart B
Emissions
Administrative Procedures
Susceptibility
Medical Equipment
Telecom
Automotive
Canadian EMC Requirements
European Union's EMC Requirements
Emission Requirements
Harmonics and Flicker
Immunity Requirements
Directives and Standards
International Harmonization
The Regulatory Process
Typical Noise Path
Methods of Noise Coupling
Conductively Coupled Noise
Common Impedance Coupling
Electric and Magnetic Field Coupling
Miscellaneous Noise Sources
Galvanic Action
Electrolytic Action
Triboelectric Effect
Conductor Motion
Use of Network Theory
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Cabling
Capacitive Coupling
Effect of Shield on Capacitive Coupling
Inductive Coupling
Mutual Inductance Calculations
Effect of Shield on Magnetic Coupling
Magnetic Coupling Between Shield and Inner Conductor
Magnetic Coupling-Open Wire to Shielded Conductor
Shielding to Prevent Magnetic Radiation
Shielding a Receptor Against Magnetic Fields
Common Impedance Shield Coupling
Shield Transfer Impedance
Coaxial Cable Versus Twisted Pair
Braided Shields
Spiral Shields
Shield Terminations
Pigtails
Grounding of Cable Shields
Ribbon Cables
Electrically Long Cables
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Grounding
AC Power Distribution and Safety Grounds
Service Entrance
Branch Circuits
Noise Control
Earth Grounds
Isolated Grounds
Separately Derived Systems
Grounding Myths
Signal Grounds
Single-Point Ground Systems
Multipoint Ground Systems
Common Impedance Coupling
Hybrid Grounds
Chassis Grounds
Equipment/System Grounding
Isolated Systems
Clustered Systems
Distributed Systems
Ground Loops
Low-Frequency Analysis of Common-Mode Choke
High-Frequency Analysis of Common-Mode Choke
Single Ground Reference for a Circuit
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Balancing and Filtering
Balancing
Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
Cable Balance
System Balance
Balanced Loads
Filtering
Common-Mode Filters
Parasitic Effects in Filters
Power Supply Decoupling
Low-Frequency Analog Circuit Decoupling
Amplifier Decoupling
Driving Capacitive Loads
System Bandwidth
Modulation and Coding
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Passive Components
Capacitors
Electrolytic Capacitors
Film Capacitors
Mica and Ceramic Capacitors
Feed-Through Capacitors
Paralleling Capacitors
Inductors
Transformers
Resistors
Noise in Resistors
Conductors
Inductance of Round Conductors
Inductance of Rectangular Conductors
Resistance of Round Conductors
Resistance of Rectangular Conductors
Transmission Lines
Characteristic Impedance
Propagation Constant
High-Frequency Loss
Relationship Among C, L and �r.
Final Thoughts
Ferrites
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Shielding
Near Fields and Far Fields
Characteristic and Wave Impedances
Shielding Effectiveness
Absorption Loss
Reflection Loss
Reflection Loss to Plane Waves
Reflection Loss in the Near Field
Electric Field Reflection Loss
Magnetic Field Reflection Loss
General Equations for Reflection Loss
Multiple Reflections in Thin Shields
Composite Absorption and Reflection Loss
Plane Waves
Electric Fields
Magnetic Fields
Summary of Shielding Equations
Shielding with Magnetic Materials
Multiple Apertures
Seams
Transfer Impedance
Waveguide Below Cutoff
Conductive Gaskets
Joints of Dissimilar Metals
Mounting of Conductive Gaskets
The "Ideal" Shield
Conductive Windows
Transparent Conductive Coatings
Wire Mesh Screens
Mounting of Windows
Conductive Coatings
Conductive Paints
Flame/Arc Spray
Vacuum Metalizing
Electroless Plating
Metal Foil Linings
Filled Plastic
Internal Shields
Cavity Resonance
Grounding of Shields
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Contact Protection
Glow Discharges
Metal-Vapor or Arc Discharges
AC Versus DC Circuits
Contact Material
Contact Rating
Loads with High Inrush Currents
Inductive Loads
Contact Protection Fundamentals
C Network
R-C Network
R-C-D Network
Inductive Loads Controlled by a Transistor Switch
Resistive Load Contact Protection
Contact Protection Selection Guide
Examples
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Intrinsic Noise Sources
Thermal Noise
Characteristics of Thermal Noise
Equivalent Noise Bandwidth
Shot Noise
Contact Noise
Popcorn Noise
Addition of Noise Voltages
Measuring Random Noise
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Active Device Noise
Noise Factor
Measurement of Noise Factor
Single-Frequency Method
Noise Diode Method
Calculating S/N Ratio and Input Noise Voltage from Noise Factor
Noise Voltage and Current Model
Measurment of Vn and In
Calculating Noise Factor and S/N Radio from Vn-In
Optimum Source Resistance
Noise Factor of Cascaded Stages
Transistor Noise Factor
Vn-In for Transistors
Field-Effect Transistor Noise
FET Noise Factor
Vn-In Representation of FET Noise
Noise in Operational Amplifiers
Methods of Specifying Op-Amp Noise
Op-Amp Noise Factor
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Frequency Versus Time Domain
Analog Versus Digital Circuits
Digital Logic Noise
Internal Noise Sources
Digital Circuit Ground Noise
Minimizing Inductance
Mutual Inductance
Practical Digital Circuit Ground Systems
Loop Area
Ground Plane Current Distribution and Impedance
Reference Plane Current Distribution
Ground Plane Impedance
Ground Plane Voltage
End Effects
Digital Logic Current Flow
Microstrip Line
Stripline
Digital Circuit Current Flow Summary
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
EMC Applications
Digital Circuit Power Distribution
Power Supply Decoupling
Transient Power Supply Currents
Transient Load Current
Dynamic Internal Current
Fourier Spectrum of the Transient Current
Total Transient Current
Decoupling Capacitors
Effective Decoupling Strategies
Multiple Decoupling Capacitors
Multiple Capacitors of the Same Value
Multiple Capacitors of Two Different Values
Multiple Capacitors of Many Different Values
Target Impedance
Embedded PCB Capacitance
Power Supply Isolation
The Effect of Decoupling on Radiated Emissions
Decoupling Capacitor Type and Value
Decoupling Capacitor Placement and Mounting
Bulk Decoupling Capacitors
Power Entry Filters
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Digital Circuit Radiation
Differential-Mode Radiation
Loop Area
Loop Current
Fourier Series
Radiated Emission Envelope
Controlling Differential-Mode Radiation
Board Layout
Canceling Loops
Dithered Clocks
Common-Mode Radiation
Controlling Common-Mode Radiation
Common-Mode Voltage
Cable Filtering and Shielding
Separate I/O Grounds
Dealing With Common-Mode Radiation Issues
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Conducted Emissions
Power Line Impedance
Line Impedance Stabilization Network
Switched-Mode Power Supplies
Common-Mode Emissions
Differential-Mode Emissions
DC-to-DC Converters
Rectifier Diode Noise
Power-Line Filters
Common-Mode Filtering
Differential-Mode Filtering
Leakage Inductance
Filter Mounting
Power Supplies with Integral Power-Line Filters
High-Frequency Noise
Primary-to-Secondary Common-Mode Coupling
Frequency Dithering
Power Supply Instability
Magnetic Field Emissions
Variable Speed Motor Drives
Harmonic Suppression
Inductive Input Filters
Active Power Factor Correction
AC Line Reactors
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
RF and Transient Immunity
Performance Criteria
RF Immunity
The RF Environment
Audio Rectification
RFI Mitigation Techniques
Transient Immunity
Electrostatic Discharge
Electrical Fast Transient
Lightning Surge
Transient Suppression Networks
Signal Line Suppression
Protection of High-Speed Signal Lines
Power Line Transient Suppression
Hybrid Protection Network
Power Line Disturbances
Power Line Immunity Curve
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Electrostatic Discharge
Static Generation
Inductive Charging
Energy Storage
Human Body Model
Static Discharge
Decay Time
ESD Protection in Equipment Design
Preventing ESD Entry
Metallic Enclosures
Input/Output Cable Treatment
Insulated Enclosures
Keyboards and Control Panels
Hardening Sensitive Circuits
ESD Grounding
Nongrounded Products
Field-Induced Upset
Inductive Coupling
Capacitive Coupling
Transient Hardened Software Design
Detecting Errors in Program Flow
Detecting Errors in Input/Output
Detecting Errors in Memory
Time Windows
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
PCB Layout and Stackup
General PCB Layout Considerations
Partitioning
Keep Out Zones
Critical Signals
System Clocks
PCB-to-Chassis Ground Connection
Return Path Discontinuities
Slots in Ground/Power Planes
Split Ground/Power Planes
Changing Reference Planes
Referencing the Top and Bottom of the Same Plane
Connectors
Ground Fill
PCB Layer Stackup
One- and Two-Layer Boards
Multilayer Boards
General PCB Design Procedure
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Mixed-Signal PCB Layout
Split Ground Planes
Microstrip Ground Plane Current Distribution
Analog and Digital Ground Pins
When Should Split Ground Planes Be Used?
Mixed Signal ICs
Multi-Board Systems
High-Resolution A/D and D/A Converters
Stripline
Asymmetric Stripline
Isolated Analog and Digital Ground Planes
A/D and D/A Converter Support Circuitry
Sampling Clocks
Mixed-Signal Support Circuitry
Vertical Isolation
Mixed-Signal Power Distribution
Power Distribution
Decoupling
The IPC Problem
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Precompliance EMC Measurements
Test Environment
Antennas Versus Probes
Common-Mode Currents on Cables
Test Procedure
Cautions
Near Field Measurements
Test Procedure
Cautions
Seams and Apertures in Enclosures
Noise Voltage Measurements
Balanced Differential Probe
DC to 1-GHz Probe
Cautions
Conducted Emission Testing
Test Procedure
Cautions
Separating C-M from D-M Noise
Spectrum Analyzers
Detector Functions
General Test Procedure
EMC Crash Cart
Mitigation Parts List
One-Meter Radiated Emission Measurements
Test Environment
Limits for 1-m Testing
Antennas for 1-m Testing
Precompliance Immunity Testing
Radiated Immunity
Conducted Immunity
Transient Immunity
Precompliance Power Quality Tests
Harmonics
Flicker
Margin
Radiated Emission Margin
Electrostatic Discharge Margin
Summary
Problems
References
Further Reading
Appendix
The Decibel
Properties of Logarithms
Using the Decibel for Other than Power Measurements
Power Loss or Negative Power Gain
Absolute Power Level
Summing Powers Expressed in Decibels
The Ten Best Ways to Maximize the Emission from Your Product
Multiple Reflections of Magnetic Fields in Thin Shields
Dipoles for Dummies
Basic Dipoles for Dummies
Intermediate Dipoles for Dummies
Advanced Dipoles for Dummies
Impedance of a Dipole
Dipole Resonance
Receiving Dipole
Theory of Images
Dipole Arrays
Very High-Frequency Dipoles
Summary
Further Reading
Partial Inductance
Inductance
Loop Inductance
Inductance of a Rectangular Loop
Partial Inductance
Partial Self-Inductance
Partial Mutual Inductance
Net Partial-Inductance
Partial Inductance Applications
Transmission Line Example
Ground Plane Inductance Measurement Test Setup
Inductance Notation
Summary
References
Further Reading
Answers to Problems
Index

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