Modern Biotechnology Connecting Innovations in Microbiology and Biochemistry to Engineering Fundamentals

ISBN-10: 0470114851
ISBN-13: 9780470114858
Edition: 2009
List price: $82.95
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Description: Biotechnology introduces students in science, engineering, or technology to the basics of genetic engineering, recombinant organisms, wild-type fermentations, metabolic engineering and microorganisms for the production of small molecule bioproducts.  More...

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Book details

List price: $82.95
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 9/11/2009
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 464
Size: 7.50" wide x 10.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.244
Language: English

Biotechnology introduces students in science, engineering, or technology to the basics of genetic engineering, recombinant organisms, wild-type fermentations, metabolic engineering and microorganisms for the production of small molecule bioproducts. The text includes a brief historical perspective and economic rationale on the impact of regulation on biotechnology production, as well as chapters on biotechnology in relation to metabolic pathways and microbial fermentations, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, metabolism, biological energetics, metabolic pathways, nucleic acids, genetic engineering, recombinant organisms and the production of monoclonal antibodies.

Biotechnology
Introduction
The Directed Manipulation of Genes Distinguishes the New Biotechnology From Prior Biotechnology
Growth of The New Biotechnology Industry Depends on Venture Capital
Submerged Fermentations Are the Industry's Bioprocessing Cornerstone
Oil Prices Affect Parts Of the Fermentation Industry
Growth of the Antibiotic/Pharmaceutical Industry
The Existence of Antibiotics Was Recognized in 1877
Penicillin Was The First Antibiotic Suitable for Human Systemic Use
Genesis of the Antibiotic Industry
Other Antibiotics Were Quickly Discovered After the Introduction of Penicillin
Discovery and Scale-up Are Synergistic in the Development of Pharmaceutical Products
The Success of the Pharmaceutical Industry In Research, Development and Engineering Contributed to Rapid Growth but Also Resulted in Challenges
Growth of the Amino Acid/Acidulant Fermentation Industry
Production of Monosodium Glutamate MSG via Fermentation
The Impact of Glutamic Acid Bacteria on Monosodium Glutamate Cost Was Dramatic
Auxotrophic and Regulatory Mutants Enabled Production of Other Amino Acids
Prices and Volumes Are Inversely Related
Biochemical Engineers Have a Key Function in All Aspects of the Development Process for Microbial Fermentation
Bibliography
Homework Problems
New Biotechnology
Introduction
Growth of The Biopharmaceutical Industry
The Biopharmaceutical Industry Is in the Early Part of Its Life Cycle
Discovery of Type II Restriction Endonucleases Opened A New Era in Biotechnology
The Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Is An Enzyme Mediated, In vitro Amplification of DNA
Impacts of the New Biotechnology on Biopharmaceuticals, Genomics, Plant Biotechnology and Bioproducts
Biotechnology Developments Have Accelerated Biological Research
Drug Discovery Has Benefited From Biotechnology Research Tools
The Fusing of Mouse Spleen Cells with T-Cells Facilitated Production of Antibodies
Regulatory Issues Add to The Time Required to Bringing a New Product to Market
New Biotechnology Methods Enable Rapid Identification Of Genes and Their Protein Products
Genomics Is the Scientific Discipline of Mapping, Sequencing, and Analyzing Genomes
Products From the New Plant Biotechnology Are Changing The Structure of Large Companies That Sell Agricultural Chemicals
Bioproducts from Genetically Engineered Microorganisms Will Become Economically Important to the Fermentation Industry
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Bioproducts And Biofuels
Introduction
Biocatalysis and the Growth of Industrial Enzymes
Glucose Isomerase Catalyzed the Birth of A New Process For Sugar Production From Corn
Identification of a Thermally Stable Glucose Isomerase and An Inexpensive Inducer Was Needed For An Industrial Process
The Demand for High Fructose Corn Syrup HFCS Resulted in Large Scale Use of Immobilized Enzymes and Liquid Chromatography
Rapid Growth of HFCS Market Share Was Enabled by Large Scale Liquid Chromatography and Propelled by Record High Sugar Prices
Biocatalysts Are Used in Fine Chemical Manufacture
Growth of Renewable Resources As A Source of Specialty Products and Industrial Chemicals
A Wide Range of Technologies Are Needed to Reduce Costs For Converting Cellulosic Substrates to Value-Added Bioproducts
Renewable Resources Are A Source of Natural Plant Chemicals
Bioseparations Are Important To the Extraction, Recovery, and Purification of Plant Derived Products
Bioprocess Engineering and Economics
Bioseparations and Bioprocess Engineering
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Microbial Fermentations
Introduction
Fermentations Are Carried Out In Flasks, Glass Vessels, and Specially Designed Stainless Steel Tanks
Microbial Cells Are Either Prokaryotes or Eucaryotes
Classification of Microorganisms are Based on Kingdoms
Prokaryotes are Important Industrial Microorganisms
Eukaryotes Are Used Industrially to Produce Ethanol Antibiotics, and Biotherapeutic Proteins
Wild Type Organisms Find Broad Industrial Use
Microbial Culture Requires That Energy and All Components Needed for Cell Growth Be Provided
Media Components and Their Function Complex and Defined Media
Carbon Sources Provide Energy, and Sometimes Provide Oxygen
Complex Media Have a Known Basic Composition but a Chemical Composition That is Not Completely Defined
Industrial Fermentation Broths May Have a High Initial Carbon Sugar Content Ethanol Fermentation Example
The Accumulation of Fermentation Products Is Proportional to Cell Mass In The Bioreactor
A Microbial Fermentation is Characterized by Distinct Phases of Growth
Expressions for Cell Growth Rate are Based on Doubling Time
Products of Microbial Culture Are Classified In Relation To Their Energy Metabolism Type I II and III Fermentations
Product Yields Are Calculated From the Stoichiometry of Biological Reactions Yield Coefficients
The Embden-Meyerhof Glycolysis and Citric Acid Cycles Are Regulated By The Relative Balance of ATP, ADP and AMP In The Cell
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Modeling And Simulation
Introduction
Simpson's Rule
Fourth-Order Runge-Kutta Method
Runge-Kutta Technique Requires that Higher Order Equations be reduced to 1st Order ODEs to Obtain Their Solution
Systems of First Order ODE's Are Represented in Vector Form
Kinetics of Cell Growth
Ks Represents Substrate Concentration at Which the Specific Growth Rate is Half of its Maximum
Simulation of a Batch Ethanol Fermentation
Ethanol Case Study
Luedeking-Piret Model
Continuous Stirred Tank Bioreactor
Batch Fermentor vs. Chemostat
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Aerobic Bioreactors
Introduction
Fermentation of Xylose to 2,3 Butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca is Aerated but Oxygen Limited
Oxygen sufficient growth occurs early in the fermentation
A transition to oxygen limitation occurs at low cell concentration (1 g/L)
Butanediol is produced under oxygen limiting conditions
Oxygen Transfer from Air Bubble to Liquid is Controlled by Liquid-side Mass Transfer
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Appendix for Chapter 6
Excel Program for Integration of Simultaneous Differential Equations
Enzymes
Introduction
Enzymes and Systems Biology
Industrial Enzymes
Enzymes: In vivo and In vitro
Fundamental Properties of Enzymes
Classification of Enzymes
Industrial Enzymes
Assaying Enzyme Activity
Enzyme Assays
Batch Reactions
Thermal Enzyme Deactivation
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Enzyme Kinetics
Introduction
Initial Rate vs. Integrated Rate Equations
Obtaining Constants from Initial Rate Data Is An Iterative Process
Batch Enzyme Reactions: Irreversible Product Formation No Inhibition
Rapid Equilibrium Approach Enables Rapid Formulation of an Enzyme Kinetic Equation
The Pseudo-steady-state Method Requires More Effort to Obtain the Hart Equation but is Necessary for Reversible Reactions
Irreversible Product Formation in the Presence of Inhibitors and Activators
Inhibition
Competitive Inhibition
Uncompetitive Inhibition
(Classical Non-competitive Inhibition)
Substrate Inhibition
Example of Reversible Reactions
Coenzymes and Co-factors Interact in a Reversible Manner
King-Altman Method
Immobilized Enzyme
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Metabolism
Introduction
Aerobic and Anaerobic Metabolism
Glycolysis is the Oxidation of Glucose in the Absence of Oxygen
Oxidation Is Catalyzed by Oxidases In the Presence of O2, and by Dehydrogenases in the Absence of O2
A Membrane Bioreactor Couples Reduction and Oxidation Reactions (R-mandelic Acid Example
Three Stages of Catabolism Generate Energy, Intermediate Molecules and Waste Products
The Glycolysis Pathway Utilizes Glucose Both In the Presence Aerobic and Absence of O2 Anaerobic to Produce Pyruvate
Glycolysis Is Initiated By the Transfer of a High Energy Phosphate Group to Glucose
Products of Anaerobic Metabolism Are Secreted or Processed by Cells to Allow Continuous Metabolism of Glucose by Glycolysis
Other Metabolic Pathways That Utilize Glucose Under Anaerobic Conditions Pentose Phosphate Entner-Doudoroff, and Hexose Monophosphate Shunt Pathways
Knowledge of Anaerobic Metabolism Enables Calculation of Theoretical Yields of Products Derived From Glucose
Economics Favors the Glycolytic Pathway for Obtaining Oxygenated Chemicals from Renewable Resources
Citric Acid Cycle and Aerobic Metabolism
Respiration Is The Aerobic Oxidation of Glucose And Other Carbon-Food-Sources Citric Acid Cycle
The Availability of Oxygen, Under Aerobic Conditions, Enables Microorganisms to Utilize Pyruvate Via the Citric Acid Cycle
The Citric Acid Cycle Generates Precursors for Biosynthesis of Amino Acids and Commercially Important Fermentation Products
Glucose Is Transformed to Commercially Valuable Products Via Fermentation Processes: A Summary
Essential Amino Acids Not Synthesized By Microorganisms Must Be Provided As Nutrients (Auxotrophs)
The Utilization of Fats in Animals Occurs By a Different Mechanism than the TCA Cycle
Some Bacteria and Molds Can Grow on Hydrocarbons or Methanol in Aerated Fermentations Single Cell Protein Case Study
Extremophiles: Microorganisms That Do Not Require Glucose, Utilize H2, and Grow At 80 to 100?C and 200 Atmospheres Have Industrial Uses
The Terminology For Microbial Culture Is Inexact: Fermentation Refers to Both Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions While Respiration Can Denote Anaerobic Metabolism
Metabolism and Biological Energetics
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Biological Energetics
Introduction
Redox Potential and Gibbs Free Energy in Biochemical Reactions
Heat: Byproduct of Metabolism
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Metabolic Pathways
Introduction
Living Organisms Control Metabolic Pathways at Strategic and Operational Levels
Auxotrophs Are Nutritionally Deficient Microorganisms That Enhance Product Yields In Controlled Fermentations Relief of Feedback Inhibition and Depression
Both Branched and Unbranched Pathways Cause Feedback Inhibition and Repression Purine Nucleotide Example
The Accumulation of An End Metabolite of A Branched Pathway Requires A Different Strategy Than Accumulation of An Intermediate Metabolite
Amino Acids
The Formulation of Animal Feed Rations With Exogeneous Amino Acids Is A Major Market For Amino Acids
Microbial Strain Discovery, Mutation, Screening and Development Facilitated Introduction of Industrial, Aerated Fermentations for Amino Acid Production by C. glutamicum
Overproduction of Glutamate by C. Glutamicum Depends on An Increase in Bacterial Membrane Permeability Biotin Deficient Mutant
A Threonine and Methionine Auxotroph of C. glutamicum Avoids Concerted Feedback Inhibition and Enables Industrial Lysine Fermentations
Cell Protoplast Fusion Is A Method for Breeding Amino Acid Producers That Incorporate Superior Characteristics of Each Parent Lysine Fermentation
Amino Acid Fermentations Represent Mature Technologies
Antibiotics
Secondary Metabolites Formed During Idiophase Are Subject to Catabolite Repression and Feedback Regulation Penicillin and Streptomycin
The Production of Antibiotics Was Viewed as a Mature Field Until Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Began to Appear
Bacteria Retain Antibiotic Resistance Even When Use of the Antibiotic Has Been Stopped For Thousands of Generations
Antibiotic Resistance Involves Many Genes Vancomycin Example
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Genetic Engineering: DNA, RNA, And Genes
Introduction
DNA
DNA Is A Double Stranded Polymer of the Nucleotides: Thymine, Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine
The Information Contained in DNA Is Huge
Genes Are Nucleotide Sequences That Contain the Information Required for the Cell to Make Proteins
Transcription Is A Process Whereby Specific Regions of the DNA
Chromosomal DNA In A Prokaryote Bacterium Is Anchored to The Cell?s Membrane While Plasmids are in the Cytoplasm
Chromosomal DNA In A Eukaryote (Yeast, Animal or Plant Cells Is Contained In The Nucleus
Microorganisms Carry Genes In Plasmids Consisting of Shorter Lengths of Circular, Extrachromosomal DNA
Restriction Enzymes Enable Directed In Vitro Cleavage of DNA
Different Type II Restriction Enzymes Give Different Patterns of Cleavage And Different Single Stranded Terminal Sequences
DNA Ligase Covalently Joins The Ends of DNA Fragments
DNA Fragments and Genes of Up To 150 Nucleotides Can Be Chemically Synthesized If The Nucleotide Sequence Has Been Previously Determined
Protein Sequences Can Be Deduced And Genes Synthesized Based On Complementary DNA Obtained From Messenger RNA
Selectable Markers Are Genes That Facilitate Identification of Transformed Cells That Contain Recombinant DNA
A Second Protein Fused to The Protein Product Is Needed To Protect The Product From Proteolysis (?-Gal-Somatostatin Fusion Protein Example)
Recovery of Protein Product From Fusion Protein Requires Correct Selection of Amino Acid That Links The Two Proteins Met Linker
Chemical Modification and Enzyme Hydrolysis Recovers An Active Molecule Containing Met Residues From A Fusion Protein (?-endorphin Example)
Metabolic Engineering Differs From Genetic Engineering By the Nature of The End Product
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Metabolic Engineering
Introduction
Building Blocks
L-Threonine Overproducing Strains of E. coli K-12
Genetically Altered Brevibacterium lactoferrin Has Yielded Improved Amino Acid Producing Strains
Metabolic Engineering May Catalyze Development of New Processes for Manufacture of Oxygenated Chemicals
Gene Chips Enable Examination of Glycolytic and Citric Acid Cycle Pathways in Yeast At a Genomic Level Yeast Genome Microarray Case Study
The Fermentation of Pentoses to Ethanol Is A Goal of Metabolic Engineering
Metabolic Engineering For a 1,3 Propanediol Producing Organism to Obtain Monomer for Polyester Manufacture
Redirection of Cellular Metabolism to Overproduce An Enzyme Catalyst Results In An Industrial Process For Acrylamide Production (Yamada-Nitto Process
Bibliography
Homework Problems
Genomes And Genomics
Introduction
Human Genome Project
Deriving Commercial Potential From Information Contained in Genomes
The Genome for E. coli Consists of 4288 Genes That Code for Proteins
DNA Sequencing is Based on Electrophoretic Separations of Defined DNA Fragments
Sequence Tagged Sites STSs Determined From Complimentary DNA cDNA Give Locations of Genes
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms SNPs Are Stable Mutations Distributed Throughout the Genome That Locate Genes More Efficiently Than STSs
Gene Chip Probe Array
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR
The Polymerase Chain Reaction Enables DNA to be Copied In Vitro
Thermally Tolerant DNA Polymerase From Thermus aquaticus Facilitated Automation of PCR
Only the 5' Terminal Primer Sequence Is Needed To Amplify the DNA By PCR
The Sensitivity of PCR Can Be A Source of Significant Experimental Error
Applications of PCR Range From Obtaining Fragments of Human DNA For Sequencing To Detecting Genes Associated With Diseases
Conclusions
Bibliography
Homework Problems

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