Microstructural Characterization of Materials

ISBN-10: 0470027851

ISBN-13: 9780470027851

Edition: 2nd 2008

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Microstructural Characterization of Materials- 2nd Edition David Brandon and Wayne D. Kaplan. Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel Microstructural characterization is usually achieved by allowing some form of probe to interact with a carefully prepared specimen. The most commonly used probes are visible light, X-ray radiation, a high-energy electron beam, or a sharp, flexible needle. These four types of probe form the basis for optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy. The book is an introduction to the expertise involved in assessing the microstructure of engineering materials and to the experimental methods used for this purpose. Similar to the first edition, this 2nd edition of Microstructural Characterization of Materials explores the methodology of materials characterization under the three headings of crystal structure, microstructural morphology, and microanalysis. The principal methods of characterization, including diffraction analysis, optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and chemical microanalytical techniques are treated both qualitatively and quantitatively. An additional chapter has been added to the new edition to cover surface probe microscopy, and there are new sections on digital image recording and analysis, orientation imaging microscopy, focused ion-beam instruments, atom-probe microscopy, and 3-D image reconstruction. As well as being fully updated, this second edition also includes revised and expanded examples and exercises. The book should appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students of material science, materials engineering, and materials chemistry, as well as to qualified engineers and more advanced researchers, who should find the book a useful and comprehensive general reference source.
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Book details

List price: $80.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 6/3/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 550
Size: 6.50" wide x 10.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
The Concept of Microstructure
Microstructural Features
Struture-Property Relationships
Microstructural Scale
Microstructural Parameters
Crystallography and Crystal Structure
Interatomic Bonding in Solids
Crystalline and Amorphous Phases
The Crystal Lattice
Summary
Bibliography
Worked Examples
Problems
Diffraction Analysis of Crystal Structure
Scattering of Radiation by Crystals
The Laue Equations and Bragg's Law
Allowed and Forbidden Reflections
Reciprocal Space
The Limiting Sphere Construction
Vector Representation of Bragg's Law
The Reciprocal Lattice
X-Ray Diffraction Methods
The X-Ray Diffractometer
Powder Diffraction-Particles and Polycrystals
Single Crystal Laue Diffraction
Rotating Single Crystal Methods
Diffraction Analysis
Atomic Scattering Factors
Scattering by the Unit Cell
The Structure Factor in the Complex Plane
Interpretation of Diffracted Intensities
Errors and Assumptions
Electron Diffraction
Wave Properties of Electrons
Ring Patterns, Spot Patterns and Laue Zones
Kikuchi Patterns and Their Interpretation
Summary
Bibliography
Worked Examples
Problems
Optical Microscopy
Geometrical Optics
Optical Image Formation
Resolution in the Optical Microscope
Depth of Field and Depth of Focus
Construction of The Microscope
Light Sources and Condenser Systems
The Specimen Stage
Selection of Objective Lenses
Image Observation and Recording
Specimen Preparation
Sampling and Sectioning
Mounting and Grinding
Polishing and Etching Methods
Image Contrast
Reflection and Absorption of Light
Bright-Field and Dark-Field Image Contrast
Confocal Microscopy
Interference Contrast and Interference Microscopy
Optical Anisotropy and Polarized Light
Phase Contrast Microscopy
Working with Digital Images
Data Collection and The Optical System
Data Processing and Analysis
Data Storage and Presentation
Dynamic Range and Digital Storage
Resolution, Contrast and Image Interpretation
Summary
Bibliography
Worked Examples
Problems
Transmission Electron Microscopy
Basic Principles
Wave Properties of Electrons
Resolution Limitations and Lens Aberrations
Comparative Performance of Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy
Specimen Preparation
Mechanical Thinning
Electrochemical Thinning
Ion Milling
Sputter Coating and Carbon Coating
Replica Methods
The Origin of Contrast
Mass-Thickness Contrast
Diffraction Contrast and Crystal Lattice Defects
Phase Contrast and Lattice Imaging
Kinematic Interpretation of Diffraction Contrast
Kinematic Theory of Electron Diffraction
The Amplitude-Phase Diagram
Contrast From Lattice Defects
Stacking Faults and Anti-Phase Boundaries
Edge and Screw Dislocations
Point Dilatations and Coherency Strains
Dynamic Diffraction and Absorption Effects
Stacking Faults Revisited
Quantitative Analysis of Contrast
Lattice Imaging at High Resolution
The Lattice Image and the Contrast Transfer Function
Computer Simulation of Lattice Images
Lattice Image Interpretation
Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy
Summary
Bibliography
Worked Examples
Problems
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Components of The Scanning Electron Microscope
Electron Beam-Specimen Interactions
Beam-Focusing Conditions
Inelastic Scattering and Energy Losses
Electron Excitation of X-Rays
Characteristic X-Ray Images
Backscattered Electrons
Image Contrast in Backscattered Electron Images
Secondary Electron Emission
Factors Affecting Secondary Electron Emission
Secondary Electron Image Contrast
Alternative Imaging Modes
Cathodoluminescence
Electron Beam Induced Current
Orientation Imaging Microscopy
Electron Backscattered Diffraction Patterns
OIM Resolution and Sensitivity
Localized Preferred Orientation and Residual Stress
Specimen Preparation and Topology
Sputter Coating and Contrast Enhancement
Fractography and Failure Analysis
Stereoscopic Imaging
Parallax Measurements
Focused Ion Beam Microscopy
Principles of Operation and Microscope Construction
Ion Beam-Specimen Interactions
Dual-Beam FIB Systems
Machining and Deposition
TEM Specimen Preparation
Serial Sectioning
Summary
Bibliography
Worked Examples
Problems
Microanalysis in Electron Microscopy
X-Ray Microanalysis
Excitation of Characteristic X-Rays
Detection of Characteristic X-Rays
Quantitative Analysis of Composition
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy
The Electron Energy-Loss Spectrum
Limits of Detection and Resolution in EELS
Quantitative Electron Energy Loss Analysis
Near-Edge Fine Structure Information
Far-Edge Fine Structure Information
Energy-Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy
Summary
Bibliography
Worked Examples
Problems
Scanning Probe Microscopy and Related Techniques
Surface Forces and Surface Morphology
Surface Forces and Their Origin
Surface Force Measurements
Surface Morphology: Atomic and Lattice Resolution
Scanning Probe Microscopes
Atomic Force Microscopy
Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy
Field-Ion Microscopy and Atom Probe Tomography
Identifying Atoms by Field Evaporation
The Atom Probe and Atom Probe Tomography
Summary
Bibliography
Problems
Chemical Analysis of Surface Composition
X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Depth Discrimination
Chemical Binding States
Instrumental Requirements
Applications
Auger Electron Spectroscopy
Spatial Resolution and Depth Discrimination
Recording and Presentation of Spectra
Identification of Chemical Binding States
Quantitative Auger Analysis
Depth Profiling
Auger Imaging
Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry
Sensitivity and Resolution
Calibration and Quantitative Analysis
SIMS Imaging
Summary
Bibliography
Worked Examples
Problems
Quantitative and Tomographic Analysis of Microstructure
Basic Stereological Concepts
Isotropy and Anisotropy
Homogeneity and Inhomogeneity
Sampling and Sectioning
Statistics and Probability
Accessible and Inaccessible Parameters
Accessible Parameters
Inaccessible Parameters
Optimizing Accuracy
Sample Size and Counting Time
Resolution and Detection Errors
Sample Thickness Corrections
Observer Bias
Dislocation Density Revisited
Automated Image Analysis
Digital Image Recording
Statistical Significance and Microstructural Relevance
Tomography and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction
Presentation of Tomographic Data
Methods of Serial Sectioning
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction
Summary
Bibliography
Worked Examples
Problems
Appendices
Useful Equations
Interplanar Spacings
Unit Cell Volumes
Interplanar Angles
Direction Perpendicular to a Crystal Plane
Hexagonal Unit Cells
The Zone Axis of Two Planes in the Hexagonal System
Wavelengths
Relativistic Electron Wavelengths
X-Ray Wavelengths for Typical X-Ray Sources
Index
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