Guide to Human Factors and Ergonomics

ISBN-10: 0415282489

ISBN-13: 9780415282482

Edition: 2nd 2005 (Revised)

Authors: Martin Helander

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Description:

Completely revised and updated, A Guide to Human Factors and Ergonomics, Second Edition presents a comprehensive introduction to the field. Building on the foundation of the first edition, titled Guide to Ergonomics of Manufacturing, the new title reflects the expanded range of coverage and applicability of the techniques you will find in the second edition. Each and every chapter contains new material and some have been entirely rewritten. Drawing on the author's experience in both teaching and industry, the book lays to rest the common myths and misconceptions that surround ergonomics.Unlike most ergonomics and human factors books that emphasize the physical, this one gives a broad overview of cognitive as well as physical ergonomics. Written in an accessible style, it presents a systems approach to human factors and ergonomics that leads to complete understanding. The author demonstrates how to collect data on users and operators and how to convert the data to good design, and offers a practical guide to the design and analysis of systems. Design oriented, systems oriented, and results oriented, this text provides the tools needed to solve systems problems and develop adequate design solutions.
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Book details

List price: $104.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 12/16/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 408
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.804
Language: English

Information-Centered Human Factors
Introduction to Human Factors and Ergonomics
Introduction
Definition of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE)
The Early Development of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE)
The Current Development of Human Factors in the U.S. and Europe
A Systems Description
The Goal of Safety
The Goal of Productivity
The Trade-Off between Productivity and Safety
The Goal of Operator Satisfaction
Conclusion
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Improvements in the Human Factors Design
Introduction
Ergonomics Improvements in Card Assembly
Design Improvements
Benefit-Cost Improvements in Human-Computer Interaction
Discussion of Costs and Benefits
Recommended Reading
Conducting a Human Factors Investigation
Introduction
Descriptive Studies
Experimental Research
Example
Evaluation Research
Example
Selection of Dependent Variables
Methods
Further Readings
Vision and Illumination Design
Introduction
The Structure of the Eye
Accommodation or Focusing of the Eye
Refractive Errors
Light Adaptation and Dark Adaptation
Color Vision
Example
Measurement of Visual Acuity
Example
Illumination at Work
Measurement of Illuminance and Luminance
Measurement of Contrast
Example: Contrast Requirements in Manufacturing
The Aging Eye
Use of Indirect (Reflected) Lighting
Cost Efficiency of Illumination
Special Purpose Lighting for Inspection and Quality Control
Exercise: Measurement of Illumination (Illuminance)
Further Readings
Human Information Processing
Introduction
Example: The Trouble with Information
Human Reaction Time and Hick's Law
Information Theory
Human Information Processing
Heuristics Are Used for Coping with the Limitations of the Working Memory
Example: Confirmation Bias at Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant
From Formal Decision Making to Naturalistic Decision Making
Rasmussen's Model
Exercise
Norman's Gulfs of Execution and Evaluation
Recognition-Primed Decision Making
Situation Awareness
The Signal Detection Theory Paradigm
Example
Vigilance and Sustained Attention
Example
Exercise
Recommended Reading
Design of Controls, Displays, and Symbols
Introduction
Example
Appropriateness of Manual Controls
Standardization of Controls
Selection of Computer Input Devices
Control Movement Stereotypes
Example: Controls for an Overhead Crane in Manufacturing
Control-Response Compatibility
Example: Poor Control-Response Compatibility
Coding of Controls
Emergency Controls
Example: Accidental Activation of Seat Ejection Control in Airplanes
Organization of Items at a Workstation
Design of Symbols and Labels
Example: Standardization of Symbols
Labels and Written Signs
Warning Signs
Exercise
Recommended Readings
Design of Human-Computer Interaction
Introduction
Some Useful Design Principles in Human-Computer Interaction
Development of Usable Design
Usability
Methods for Usability Evaluation
Exercise: Designing a Clock Radio with a Mac or Windows Interface
Human-Body-Centered Ergonomics
Anthropometry in Workstation Design
Introduction
Measuring Human Dimensions
Exercise: Select Body Dimensions for Design of a Car Interior
Definition of Anthropometric Measures
Exercise
Procedure for Anthropometric Design
New Developments in Three-Dimensional Models for Anthropometric Design
Accommodating the Needs of Disabled Employees
Anthropometry Standards
Exercise: Designing a Microscope Workstation
Further Reading
Work Posture
Introduction
Examples of Work Postures
Poor Body Postures
Example: Sitting in India
Sitting, Standing, and Sit-Standing
Example: Sit-Standing in Medieval Europe
Exercise: Calculate Working Height
Work at Conveyors
Measurement and Ergonomic Implications of Work Posture
Exercise: Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Stress Function
Further Readings
Manual Materials Handling
Introduction
Statistics on Back Injuries Associated with Lifting
Basic Biomechanics
The So-called Correct Lifting Technique
NIOSH Guidelines and Standards for Lifting
Loading Punch Press Stock
Product Packaging
Guidelines in Europe
Material Handlings Aids
Materials Handling Devices
Exercise: Materials Handling Devices
Recommended Readings
Repetitive Motion Injury and Design of Hand Tools
Introduction
Common Repetitive Motion Injuries
Causes of Repetitive Motion Injury
Design Guidelines to Minimize Repetitive Motion Injury
Hand Tool Design
Design Guidelines for Hand Tools
Exercise
Recommended Reading
Physical Workload and Heat Stress
Introduction
Metabolism
Individual Differences
Metabolism at Work
Example: Calculation of Relative Workload
Measurement of Physical Workload
Heat Stress
Measurement of Heat Stress
Exercise: Discussion of Heat Stress Management
Recommended Readings
Noise and Vibration
Introduction
Measurement of Sound
Noise Exposure and Hearing Loss
Example: Calculation of Noise Dose
Hearing Protectors
Analysis and Reduction of Noise
Reduction of Noise in a Manufacturing Plant
Effects of Noise on Human Performance
Broadbent and Poulton Theories
Exercise: Discussion of Theories
Annoyance of Noise and Interference with Communication
Interference of Noise with Spoken Communication
Whole-Body Vibration
Sources of Vibration Discomfort
Segmental Vibration
Recommended Readings
Organization/Management-Centered Human Factors
Ergonomics of Computer Workstations
Introduction
Sitting Work Posture
Viewing Distance and Eye Glasses
Effect of Radiation
Reducing Reflections and Glare on CRT Screens
Exercise: Calculating the Effect of a Screen Filter on the Display Contrast Ratio
From CRTs to LCDs
Summary
Further Readings
Training, Skills, and Cognitive Task Analysis
Introduction
Establishing the Need for Training
Determining Training Content and Training Methods
Use of Task Analysis
Use of Job Aids
Example: Remembering Error Codes
The Power Law of Practice
Example: Prediction of Future Assembly Time
Cognitive Task Analysis and Work Analysis
Rasmussen's Analytical Approach
Applied Cognitive Task Analysis
Recommended Reading
Shift Work
Introduction
Example: Poor Practices in Shift Work Scheduling Abound
Circadian Rhythms
Problems with Shift Work
Effects on Performance and Productivity
Improving Shift Work
Shift Work Schedules
Selecting Individuals for Shift Work
Recommended Readings
Design for Manufacture and Maintenance
Introduction
The Desire to Automate
Example: The Assembly of a Paper Picking Mechanism
What to Do and What to Avoid in Product Design
Designing Automation Using Boothroyd's Principles
MTM Analysis of an Assembly
Human Factors Principles in Design for Assembly
Exercise: Design for Job Satisfaction
Design for Maintainability
Design for Testability
Design for Accessibility
Design for Ease of Manipulation
Summary
Recommended Reading
Accidents, Human Errors, and Safety
Introduction
Interpreting Accident Statistics
Social and Developmental Factors in Accident Statistics
Example
Models and Definitions of Accidents
Accident Proneness
Human Error
Ergonomics for Productivity, Safety, Health, and Comfort
Machine Safety
Case Study: Robot Safety at IBM Corporation/Lexmark
Exercise
Recommended Readings
References
The Use of Human Factors/Ergonomics Checklists
Index
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