From Computer to Brain Foundations of Computational Neuroscience

ISBN-10: 0387955267
ISBN-13: 9780387955261
Edition: 2002
List price: $59.95 Buy it from $40.38
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Description: Bridging the gap between mathematics and life sciences, this undergraduate text on computational neuroscience gives basic explanations and provides ancillary material in an appendix.

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Book details

List price: $59.95
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 10/1/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 364
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.342
Language: English

Bridging the gap between mathematics and life sciences, this undergraduate text on computational neuroscience gives basic explanations and provides ancillary material in an appendix.

Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
For whom is this book?
What is in the book?
Do I need a computer for this book?
Software
Why learn this now?
What is the subtext?
How is the book organized?
Perspectives
Computational Neuroscience and You
Why learn this?
Brain metaphors
Compare and contrast computer and brain
Origins of computer science and neuroscience
Levels
Levels of organization
Levels of investigation
New engineering vs. old engineering
The neural code
The goals and methods of computational neuroscience
Summary and thoughts
Basic Neuroscience
Why learn this?
Microscopic view of the nervous system
Macroscopic view of the nervous system
Slicing the brain
Parts of the brain
How do we learn about the brain?
Anatomical methods
Neurophysiology
Molecular biology and neuropharmacology
Psychophysics
Clinical neurology and neuropsychology
Ablative diseases
Intrinsic diseases
Summary and thoughts
Computers
Computer Representations
Why learn this?
Calculator or typewriter
Punch cards and Boolean algebra
Analog vs. digital representations
Types of computer representations
Representation of numbers
Representation of letters and words
Representation of pictures
Neurospeculation
Summary and thoughts
The Soul of an Old Machine
Why learn this?
The art of the hack
Software and hardware
Basic computer design
Pointers come from computer memory design
Sequential algorithms come from computer control flow
CPU: machine commands
Programs and hacks
Conditionals
Pointer manipulation
A kludge
A computer virus
Neurospeculation
Summary and thoughts
Cybernetics
Concept Neurons
Why learn this?
History and description of McCulloch-Pitts neurons
Describing networks by weights and states
Calculating total-summed-input by dot product
Calculating state
From single unit to network of units
Network architecture
Summary and thoughts
Neural Coding
Why learn this?
Coding in space: ensemble codes
Local vs. distributed ensemble coding
Coding with volts and chemicals: neural state code
Coding in time: temporal and rate codes
Temporal integration
Clocking
Frequency coding
Summary and thoughts
Our Friend the Limulus
Why learn this?
The biology
What we can ignore
Why the eye lies: the problem
Design issues
Making the model small - scaling
Making the model small - dimensional reduction
Eliminating edge effects - wraparound
Presenting the input - parameterization
Parameterizing the activation function
Parameterizing the weight matrix
<$$$>
State calculation
Life as a limulus
Summary and thoughts
Supervised Learning: Delta Rule and Back-Propagation
Why learn this?
Supervised learning
The delta rule
The energy analogy
The delta rule solves AND
Backward propagation
Distributed representations
Distributed representation in eye movement control
Design of the model
Results from the model: generalization
Exploration of the model: hidden unit analysis
Computer modeling vs. traditional mathematical modeling
Summary and thoughts
Associative Memory Networks
Why learn this?
Memories in an outer product
Association across a single synapse
The outer product of two vectors
Making hetero- and autoassociative memories
Limit cycles
Instantaneous vs. gradual learning and recall
Critique of the Hopfield network
Summary and thoughts
Brains
From Soap to Volts
Why learn this?
Basic cell design
Morphing soap and salt to batteries and resistors
Converting the RC circuit into an equation
Capacitance and current
Adding up the currents
Parameter dependence
Advantages and disadvantages of numerical integration
Time constant and temporal summations
Slow potential theory
Averaging by adding PSPs
Summary and thoughts
Hodgkin-Huxley Model
Why learn this?
From passive to active
The resting membrane potential is about -70 mV
The membrane is insulator, capacitor, and battery
Synaptic inputs aren't current injections
History of the action potential
Hodgkin and Huxley
The parallel-conductance model
The circuit
Currents
Calculations
Where do the batteries come from?
Behavior of the active channels
Feedback systems
Particle duality
Particle dynamics
The particle equations
State variables define a state
Simulation
Implications for signaling
The threshold and channel memory
Rate coding redux
Summary and thoughts
Compartment Modeling
Why learn this?
Dividing into compartments
Building the model
Chemical synapse modeling
Shunting inhibition
GABA and glutamate
Passive neuron model
Synaptic responses
Back-propagating spikes and the Hebb synapse
Summary and thoughts
From Artificial Neural Network to Realistic Neural Network
Why learn this?
Hopfield revisited
Suppression model for reducing interference
A digression into philosophy
Acetylcholine has multiple effects
The dual-matrix hypothesis
True confessions
Summary and thoughts
Neural Circuits
Why learn this?
The basic layout
Hippocampus
Thalamus
Cerebellum
Basal ganglia
Neocortex
Summary and thoughts
The Basics
Why learn this?
Units
Scientific notation
Numerical prefixes
Units and abbreviations
Unit conversions
Dimensional analysis
Binary
Translating back and forth
Addition and subtraction
Octal and hex
Boolean algebra
Linear algebra
What is algebra? Why linear?
Addition and subtraction
Dot product
Orthogonality
Outer product
Matrix multiplication
Numerical calculus
Infinitesimals
Numerical solutions
Mathematical symbols
Analytic solution to the charging curve
Electrical engineering
The three big laws: Ohm, Kirchhoff, and the other one
Ohm's law
Capacitance
Glossary
Index

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