Wine Microbiology Practical Applications and Procedures

ISBN-10: 038733341X
ISBN-13: 9780387333410
Edition: 2nd 2007 (Revised)
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Description: Since publication of the first edition of Wine Microbiology in 1997, the volume of new information and concepts has dramatically increased. Even with the tremendous increase in available information, a comprehensive understanding regarding the role  More...

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Book details

List price: $109.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 11/14/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 394
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.540
Language: English

Since publication of the first edition of Wine Microbiology in 1997, the volume of new information and concepts has dramatically increased. Even with the tremendous increase in available information, a comprehensive understanding regarding the role of individual microorganisms towards wine quality as well as the impact of complicated interactions between microorganisms and processing techniques is lacking. Wine Microbiology, Second Edition , fills this void. Like the first edition, the book addresses real world problems such as characterization and enumeration of yeast, bacteria and molds common to juice and wine environments and their impact on wine quality and stability. In addition, the potential of solving processing problems through rapid, real-time molecular methods and new applications for using starter cultures of non-Saccharomyces yeast are discussed. The book is a great resource for professionals and students in the field of enology and viticulture.

Kenneth C. Fugelsang has been associated with California State University (Fresno) since 1970 and is now winemaster and professor of enology. He is an author of 12 books and over 100 technical papers and presentations. Professor Fugelsang has been recipient of the Claude Laval Award for Innovative Technology, the University Award for Research and Scholarly Activity, as well as the Outstanding Alumnus Award from the College of Science and Mathematics. In addition to teaching and research responsibilities, he is responsible for operation of the university�s commercial 50,000 gallon winery where student�produced wines have received over 150 super, gold, and silver awards at national and international wine competitions.Charles G. Edwards received his Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in food science from Oregon State University (1982), Cornell University (1985), and The Pennsylvania State University (1989), respectively. He is currently a professor with the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Washington State University (Pullman, Washington, USA). Dr. Edwards is an author of 150+ technical papers and presentations and is sole author of Illustrated Guide to Microbes and Sediments in Wine, Beer, and Juice. His laboratory was award the best research paper published in the American Journal of Enology and Viticulture in 1991 and best student presentations at the American Society for Enology and Viticulture annual meeting in 2004. Dr. Edwards currently teaches courses in food chemistry and wine microbiology/processing.

Preface to the Second Edition
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Grape and Wine Microorganisms
Yeasts
Introduction
Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
Taxonomy
Candida
Dekkera
Hanseniaspora
Issatchenkia
Metschnikowia
Pichia
Saccharomyces
Saccharomycodes
Schizosaccharomyces
Zygosaccharomyces
Nutritional Requirements
Nitrogen
Growth and Survival Factors
Metabolism
Glucose
Sulfur
Odor/Flavor Compounds
Glycosidases
Mannoproteins
Lactic Acid Bacteria
Introduction
Taxonomy
Lactobacillus
Oenococcus
Pediococcus
Nutritional Requirements
Metabolism
Glucose
Arginine
Malate
Mannitol and Erythritol
Diacetyl and Other Odor/Flavor Compounds
Acetic Acid Bacteria
Introduction
Taxonomy
Nutritional Requirements
Metabolism
Carbohydrates
Ethanol
Molds and Other Microorganisms
Introduction
Ecology Habitats
Taxonomy
Aspergillus (Black Mold)
Botrytis (Gray Mold)
Penicillium (Blue-Green Mold)
4.4 Nutritional Requirements
4.5 Metabolism
Glucose
Mycotoxins
Odor/Flavor Compounds
Other Microorganisms
Bacillus
Clostridium
Streptomyces
Vinification and Winery Processing
Managing Microbial Growth
Introduction
Preservatives and Sterilants
Sulfur Dioxide
Dimethyl Dicarbonate
Lysozyme
Sorbic Acid
Other Preservatives and Sterilants
Filtration
Perpendicular-Flow Filtration ("Nominal" or "Depth")
Perpendicular-Flow Filtration ("Absolute" or "Sterile")
Cross-Flow/Tangential Filtration
Microbial Ecology During Vinification
Introduction
Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces Yeasts
Grapes and Musts
Alcoholic Fermentation
Post-fermentation
Dekkera/Brettanomyces
Grapes and Musts
Alcoholic and Post-fermentation
Lactic Acid Bacteria
Grapes and Musts
Alcoholic and Malolactic Fermentations
Post-fermentation
Acetic Acid Bacteria
Grapes and Musts
Alcoholic and Post-fermentation
Microbial Interactions
Saccharomyces and Oenococcus
Saccharomyces and Lactobacillus
Oenococcus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus
Other Interactions
Harvest and Pre-fermentation Processing
Introduction
Harvest and Transport
Fruit Quality Assessment
Soluble Solids
pH and Titratable Acidity
Microbial Spoilage
Must Processing
Enzymes
Suspended Solids
Pre-fermentation Maceration (Cold-Soak)
Thermovinification
Inert Gassing
Processing Microbially Deteriorated Fruit
Enzymatic Browning
Fermentation Difficulties
Clarification Concerns
Management Strategies
Juice Storage (Mute)
Fermentation and Post-fermentation Processing
Introduction
Must Supplementation
Alcoholic Fermentation
Historical Perspective of Starter Cultures
Preparation of Starter Cultures
Strain Selection
Temperature
Immobilized Yeast
"Natural" Fermentations
Fermentation Problems
Sluggish/Stuck Fermentations
Hydrogen Sulfide
Malolactic Fermentation
Preparation of Starter Cultures
Strain Selection
Timing of Inoculation
Use of Schizosaccharomyces
Post-Fermentation Processing
Aging and Storage
Adjustment of Volatile Acidity
Bottling
Winery Cleaning and Sanitizing
Introduction
Safety Issues
Water Quality
Preliminary Cleaning
Detergents, Cleaners, and Surfactants
Alkali
Acids
Surfactants
Rinses
Sanitizers
Iodine
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Acidulated Sulfur Dioxide
Peroxides
Chlorine and Chlorinated Formulations
Hot Water and Steam
Ozone
Sanitation Monitoring
Schedules and Documentation
Quality Points Program
Introduction
Developing QP Programs
Processing and Flowchart
Quality Factor Analysis
Examples of Quality Factors
Preventive Measures
Critical Quality Points
Critical Limits
Monitoring Procedures
Corrective Actions
Record-Keeping and Documentation
Verification
Wine Spoilage
Introduction
Spoilage Microorganisms
Acetohacter
Dekkera/Brettanomyces
Film Yeasts
Saccharomycodes
Zygosaccharoviyces
Wine Faults
Volatile Acidity
Ethyl Carbamate
Mousiness
Post-MLF Bacterial Growth
Geranium Odor/Tone
Biogenic Amines
Acrolein
Mannitol
Ropiness
Tartaric Add Utilization
Laboratory Procedures and Protocols
Basic Microscopy
Introduction
Microscopes
Magnification
Resolution
Contrast
Fluorescence Microscopy
Using Microscopes
Components
General Use
Calibration
Preparing Smears
From Liquid Media
From Solid Media
Preparing Wet Mounts
Preparing Mold Slide Cultures
Media Preparation and Culture Techniques
Introduction
Physical/Chemical Requirements for Cultivation
Carbon and Nitrogen
Oxygen
Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH)
Moisture and Water Activity
Incubation Temperature and Conditions
Selective Agents
Sterilization of Laboratory Media and Supplies
Boiling Water
Steam Sterilization
Dry Heat
Sterile Filtration
Chemical Sterilization
Storage of Prepared Media
Media for Yeasts and Molds
Wort Medium
Grape Juice Medium
WL Medium
Brettanomyces Medium A
Brettanomyces Medium B
Brettanomyces Medium C
Brettanomyces Medium D
Lysine Medium
Zygosaccharomyces Medium
Media for Lactic Acid Bacteria
Apple Juice Rogosa Medium
Tomato Juice-Glucose-Fructose-Malate Medium
Heterofermentation-Arginine Broth
Media for Acetic Acid Bacteria
Glucose-Yeast Extract-Carbonate Medium
Mannitol-Yeast Extract-Peptone Medium
Yeast Extract-Peptone-Ethanol Medium
Aseptic Transfer Techniques
Transfers from Solid to Solid Media
Transfers from Solid to Liquid Media
Transfers from Liquid to Solid Media
Isolation of Microorganisms
Maintenance and Storage of Cultures
Preparation of Agar Slants and Stabs
Glycerol Suspensions
Freeze-drying (Yeasts)
Freeze-drying (Lactic Acid Bacteria)
Estimation of Population Density
Introduction
Sampling
Sample Dilution
Direct Microscopic Count
Using a Microscope Counting Chamber
Methylene Blue
Ponceau-S
Wolford's Stain
Direct Plating
Pour Plates
Spread Plates
Membrane Filtration
Bioluminescence
Nephelometry and Optical Density
Identification of Wine Microorganisms
Introduction
Identifying Microorganisms
Yeasts and Molds
Assimilation of Carbon and Nitrogen
Demonstration of Ascospores
Demonstration of Mycelia/Pseudomycelia
Fermentation of Carbohydrates
Bacteria
Ammonia from Arginine
Catalase
Dextran from Sucrose
Fermentation of Carbohydrates
Gas from Glucose
Gram Stain
Ketogenesis
Lactate from Glucose
Malate Utilization (Monitoring MLF)
Mannitol from Fructose
Oxidation of Ethanol
Oxidation of Lactate
Other Technologies for Identification and Enumeration
Introduction
Phenotypical Identification
Biolog System
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Analysis
Protein Characterization
Electrophoretic Characterization of Isozymes (Zymograms)
Immunochemical Techniques
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Immunochemical Fluorescence Microscopy
Phylogenetic Analyses
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Gel Electrophoresis
Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction
Hybridization Probes
Fluoresence In Situ Hybridization
Ribonucleic Acid Analysis
Probe Detection Systems
TaqMan Probes
Molecular Beacons
Scorpions
Peptide Nucleic Acid Chemiluminescent In Situ Hybridization Probes
Other Molecular Methods
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis
Additional Methods
Extrachromosomal Elements (Satellites)
Chemical and Physical Instabilities
Introduction
Crystalline Instabilities
Tartrates
"Crystal-Like" Instabilities
Cork Dust
Diatomaceous Earth
Fibrous Instabilities
Amorphous Instabilities
Protein
Phenolics
Glucans, Pectins, and Starch
Metal Casse
Laboratory Setup
Introduction
Microscope and pH Meter
Autoclave
Centrifuge and Filters
Incubators
Water Baths
Glass and Plasticware
Media
Photometers
Laminar Flow Hoods
Miscellaneous
Laboratory Safety
Introduction
Injury and Illness Prevention Program
Training
Information
Communication
Eyewash Stations and Safety Showers
Fire Alarms and Prevention
First Aid
Personal Protective Equipment
Examples of Safety Issues
Biohazard and Chemical Waste
Electricity
Heat and Steam
Machinery Safeguards
Storage
Ultraviolet Light
Glossary
References
Index

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