Physics and Radiobiology of Nuclear Medicine

ISBN-10: 0387307540
ISBN-13: 9780387307541
Edition: 3rd 2006 (Revised)
Authors: Gopal B. Saha
List price: $89.95
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Description: Froma noted author comes this new edition for technologists, practitioners, residents, and students in radiology and nuclear medicine. Encompassing major topics in nuclear medicine from the basic physics of radioactive decay to instrumentation and  More...

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Book details

List price: $89.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 8/22/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 320
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.232
Language: English

Froma noted author comes this new edition for technologists, practitioners, residents, and students in radiology and nuclear medicine. Encompassing major topics in nuclear medicine from the basic physics of radioactive decay to instrumentation and radiobiology, it is an ideal review for Board and Registry examinations.New features in the Second Edition include:- various new scintillation and solid-state detectors- digital cameras and solid state digital cameras- elaborated description of nonuniformity and nonlinearity in images and gamma camera response to high count rates- updated description of image reconstruction using both filter backprojection and iterative methods- new chapter on computers and their use in nuclear medicine- new section on PET detectors and dual-head coincidence counters- additional information on internal dosimetry including cumulated activity, mean absorbed dose, and effective dose- expanded chapter on radiation biology including cancer risk from nuclear medicine studies- new NRC Regulations

Preface
Structure of Matter
Matter and Energy
Radiation
The Atom
Electronic Structure of the Atom
Structure of the Nucleus
Nuclear Binding Energy
Nuclear Nomenclature
Chart of the Nuclides
Questions
Suggested Readings
Radioactive Decay
Spontaneous Fission
Isomeric Transition
Gamma ([gamma])-Ray Emission
Internal Conversion
Alpha ([alpha])-Decay
Beta ([beta superscript -])-Decay
Positron ([beta superscript +])-Decay
Electron Capture
Questions
Suggested Readings
Kinetics of Radioactive Decay
Radioactive Decay Equations
General Equation
Half-Life
Mean Life
Effective Half-life
Units of Radioactivity
Specific Activity
Calculation
Successive Decay Equations
General Equation
Transient Equilibrium
Secular Equilibrium
Questions
Suggested Readings
Statistics of Radiation Counting
Error, Accuracy, and Precision
Mean and Standard Deviation
Gaussian Distribution
Standard Deviation of Count Rates
Propagation of Errors
Chi-Square Test
Minimum Detectable Activity
Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests
Questions
Suggested Readings
Production of Radionuclides
Cyclotron-Produced Radionuclides
Reactor-Produced Radionuclides
Fission or (n, f) Reaction
Neutron Capture or (n, [gamma]) Reaction
Target and Its Processing
Equation for Production of Radionuclides
Radionuclide Generators
[superscript 99]Mo-[superscript 99m]Tc Generator
Questions
Suggested Readings
Interaction of Radiation with Matter
Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter
Specific Ionization
Linear Energy Transfer
Range
Bremsstrahlung
Annihilation
Interaction of [gamma]-Radiations with Matter
Mechanism of Interaction of [gamma]-Radiations
Attenuation of [gamma]-Radiations
Interaction of Neutrons with Matter
Questions
Suggested Readings
Gas-Filled Detectors
Principles of Gas-Filled Detectors
Ionization Chambers
Cutie Pie Survey Meter
Dose Calibrator
Pocket Dosimeter
Geiger-Muller Counters
Questions
Suggested Readings
Scintillation and Semiconductor Detectors
Scintillation Detectors
Solid Scintillation Detectors
Semiconductor Detectors
Solid Scintillation Counters
NaI(Tl) Detector
Photomultiplier Tube
Preamplifier
Linear Amplifier
Pulse-Height Analyzer
Display or Storage
Gamma-Ray Spectrometry
Photopeak
Compton Valley, Edge, and Plateau
Characteristic X-Ray Peak
Backscatter Peak
Iodine Escape Peak
Annihilation Peak
Coincidence Peak
Liquid Scintillation Counters
Characteristics of Counting Systems
Energy Resolution
Detection Efficiency
Dead Time
Gamma Well Counters
Calibration of Well Counters
Counting in Well Counters
Effects of Sample Volume
Thyroid Probe
Thyroid Uptake Measurement
Questions
Suggested Readings
Gamma Cameras
Gamma Cameras
Principles of Operation
Detector
Collimator
Photomultiplier Tube
X-, Y-Positioning Circuit
Pulse-Height Analyzer
Display and Storage
Digital Cameras
Solid State Digital Cameras
Questions
Suggested Readings
Performance Parameters of Gamma Cameras
Spatial Resolution
Intrinsic Resolution
Collimator Resolution
Scatter Resolution
Evaluation of Spatial Resolution
Bar Phantom
Line-Spread Function
Modular Transfer Function
Sensitivity
Collimator Efficiency
Uniformity
Pulse-Height Variation
Nonlinearity
Edge Packing
Gamma Camera Tuning
Effects of High Counting Rates
Contrast
Q`ality Control Tests for Gamma Cameras
Daily Checks
Weekly Checks
Annual or As-Needed Checks
Questions
References and Suggested Readings
Digital Computers in Nuclear Medicine
Basics of a Computer
Central Processing Unit
Computer Memory
External Storage Devices
Input/Output Devices
Operation of a Computer
Digitization of Analog Data
Digital-to-Analog Conversion
Digital Images
Application of Computers in Nuclear Medicine
Digital Data Acquisition
Static Study
Dynamic Study
Gated Study
Reconstruction of Images
Superimposition and Subtraction of Images
Display
Software and DICOM
PACS
Questions
Suggested Readings
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
Tomographic Imaging
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
Data Acquisition
Image Reconstruction
SPECT/CT
Factors Affecting SPECT
Performance of SPECT Cameras
Spatial Resolution
Sensitivity
Other Parameters
Quality Control Tests for SPECT Cameras
Daily Tests
Weekly Tests
Quality Control Tests for CT Scanners
Questions
References and Suggested Readings
Position Emission Tomography
Positron-Emitting Radionuclides
Detector for PET
PM Tubes and Pulse-Height Analyzers
PET Scanners
Block Detectors
Coincidence Timing Window
PET/CT Scanners
Mobile PET or PET/CT
Micro-PET
Hybrid Gamma Cameras
Data Acquisition
Two-Dimensional Versus Three-Dimensional Data Acquisition
Image Reconstruction
Factors Affecting PET
Normalization
Photon Attenuation Correction
Random Coincidences
Scatter Coincidences
Dead Time
Radial Elongation
Performance of PET Scanners
Spatial Resolution
Sensitivity
Noise Equivalent Count Rate
Quality Control Tests for PET Scanners
Daily Tests
Weekly Tests
Questions
References and Suggested Readings
Internal Radiation Dosimetry
Radiation Units
Dose Calculation
Radiation Dose Rate
Cumulative Radiation Dose
Radiation Dose in SI Units
Effective Dose Equivalent and Effective Dose
Pediatric Dosages
Questions
Suggested Readings
Radiation Biology
The Cell
Effects of Radiation
DNA Molecule
Chromosome
Direct and Indirect Actions of Radiation
Radiosensitivity of Cells
Cell Survival Curves
Factors Affecting Radiosensitivity
Dose Rate
Linear Energy Transfer
Chemicals
Stage of Cell Cycle
Classification of Radiation Damage
Stochastic and Deterministic Effects
Acute Effects of Total Body Irradiation
Hemopoietic Syndrome
Gastrointestinal Syndrome
Cerebrovasculor Syndrome
Long-Term Effects of Radiation
Somatic Effects
Genetic Effects
Risk Versus Benefit in Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine
Risk to Pregnant Women
Dirty Bombs
Types of Radiation Exposure
Protective Measures in Case of Explosion of a Dirty Bomb
Verification Card for Radioactive Patients
Radiation Phobia
Questions
References and Suggested Readings
Radiation Regulations and Protection
Sources of Radiation Exposure
License
Radiation Protection
Definition of Terms
Caution Signs and Labels
Occupational Dose Limits
ALARA Program
Principles of Radiation Protection
Personnel Monitoring
Dos and Don'ts in Radiation Protection Practice
Bioassay
Receiving and Monitoring Radioactive Packages
Radioactive Waste Disposal
Radioactive Spill
Recordkeeping
Medical Uses of Radioactive Materials
Applications, Amendments, and Notifications
Authority and Responsibilities of the Licensee
Supervision
Mobile Nuclear Medicine Service
Written Directives
Measurement of Dosages
Calibration, Transmission, and Reference Sources
Requirement for Possession of Sealed Sources
Labeling of Vials and Syringes
Surveys of Ambient Radiation Exposure Rate
Calibration of Survey Instruments
Training and Experience Requirements for Medical Uses of By-Product Materials
Report and Notification of a Medical Event
Report and Notification of a Dose to an Embryo/Fetus or a Nursing Child
Release of Patients Administered with Radiopharmaceuticals
Recordkeeping
Transportation of Radioactive Materials
European Regulations Governing Radiopharmaceuticals
Questions
References and Suggested Readings
Units and Constants
Terms Used in Texts
Answers to Questions
Index

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