Modern Food Microbiology

ISBN-10: 0387231803
ISBN-13: 9780387231808
Edition: 7th 2005 (Revised)
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Description: With 30 revised and updated chapters, the new edition of this classic text brings benefits to professors and students alike who will find new sections on proteobacteria, bottled water, food sanitizers (eletrolyzed oxidating water, ozone, chlorine,  More...

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Book details

List price: $84.95
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 5/10/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 790
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.75" tall
Weight: 3.872
Language: English

With 30 revised and updated chapters, the new edition of this classic text brings benefits to professors and students alike who will find new sections on proteobacteria, bottled water, food sanitizers (eletrolyzed oxidating water, ozone, chlorine, activin, chitosans, endolysins, etc.), bicontrol, biosensors quorum sensing, molecular genetic methods of analysis, food safety objectives, noroviruses, and prions. The book builds on the trusted and established sections on food preservation by modified atmosphere, high pressure and pulsed electric field processing, food-borne pathogens, food regulations, fresh-cut produce, new food products, and risk assessment and analysis.nbsp; In-depth references, appendixes, illustrations, index and thorough updating of taxonomies make this an essential for every food scientist.

Preface
Historical Background
History of Microorganisms in Food
Historical Developments
Food Preservation
Food Spoilage
Food Poisoning
Food Legislation
Habitats, Taxonomy, and Growth Parameters
Taxonomy, Role, and Significance of Microorganisms in Foods
Bacterial Taxonomy
rRNA Analyses
Analysis of DNA
Primary Sources of Microorganisms Found in Foods
Synopsis of Common Foodborne Bacteria
Synopsis of Common Genera of Foodborne Molds
Synopsis of Common Genera of Foodborne Yeasts
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Parameters of Foods That Affect Microbial Growth
Intrinsic Parameters
pH
Moisture Content
Oxidation-Reduction Potential
Nutrient Content
Antimicrobial Constituents
Biological Structures
Extrinsic Parameters
Temperature of Storage
Relative Humidity of Environment
Presence and Concentration of Gases in the Environment
Presence and Activities of Other Microorganisms
Combined Intrinsic and Extrinsic Parameters: The Hurdle Concept
Microorganisms in Foods
Fresh Meats and Poultry
Biochemical Events That Lead To Rigor Mortis
The Biota of Meats and Poultry
Incidence/Prevalence of Microorganisms in Fresh Red Meats
Soy-Extended Ground Meats
Mechanically Deboned Meat, Poultry, and Fish
Hot-Boned Meats
Organ and Variety Meats
Microbial Spoilage of Fresh Red Meats
Spoilage of Fresh Livers
Incidence/Prevalence of Microorganisms in Fresh Poultry
Microbial Spoilage of Poultry
Carcass Sanitizing/Washing
Processed Meats
Curing
Smoking
Sausage, Bacon, Bologna, and Related Products
Bacon and Cured Hams
Fermented Meat Products
Seafoods
Microbiological Quality of Various Fresh and Frozen Products
Fermented Fish Products
Spoilage of Fish and Shellfish
Fermentation and Fermented Dairy Products
Fermentation
Background
Defined and Characterized
The Lactic Acid Bacteria
Metabolic Pathways and Molar Growth Yields
Dairy Products
Milk Biota
Starter Cultures, Products
Cheeses
Apparent Health Benefits of Fermented Milks
Lactose Intolerance
Cholesterol
Anticancer Effects
Probiotics
Diseases Caused by Lactic Acid Bacteria
Fruit and Vegetable Products: Whole, Fresh-Cut, and Fermented
Fresh and Frozen Vegetables
Spoilage
Spoilage of Fruits
Fresh-Cut Produce
Microbial Load
Pathogens
Fermented Products
Breads
Olives, Pickles, and Sauerkraut
Beer, Ale, Wines, Cider, and Distilled Spirits
Miscellaneous Fermented Products
Miscellaneous Food Products
Delicatessen and Related Foods
Eggs
Mayonnaise and Salad Dressing
Cereals, Flour, and Dough Products
Bakery Products
Frozen Meat Pies
Sugar, Candies, and Spices
Nutmeats
Dehydrated Foods
Enteral Nutrient Solutions (Medical Foods)
Single-Cell Protein
Rationale for SCP Production
Organisms and Fermentation Substrates
SCP Products
Nutrition and Safety of SCP
Determining Microorganisms and/or Their Products in Foods
Culture, Microscopic, and Sampling Methods
Conventional Standard Plate Count
Homogenization of Food Samples
The Spiral Plater
Membrane Filters
Direct Epifluorescent Filter Technique
Microcolony-DEFT
Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter
Microscope Colony Counts
Agar Droplets
Dry Film and Related Methods
Most Probable Numbers
Dye Reduction
Roll Tubes
Direct Microscopic Count
Microbiological Examination of Surfaces
Swab/Swab-Rinse Methods
Contact Plate
Agar Syringe/"Agar Sausage" Methods
Other Surface Methods
Metabolically Injured Organisms
Recovery/Repair
Mechanism
Viable but Nonculturable Organisms
Physical, Chemical, Molecular, and Immunological Methods
Physical Methods
Impedance and Related
Microcalorimetry
Flow Cytometry
Chemical Methods
Thermostable Nuclease
Limulus Lysate for Endotoxins
Adenosine Triphosphate Measurement
Radiometry
Fluorogenic and Chromogenic Substrates
Lux Gene Luminescence
Ice Nucleation Assay
Methods for Characterizing and Fingerprinting Foodborne Organisms
Serotyping
Bacteriophage Typing
Nucleic Acid (DNA) Probes
DNA Amplification (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis Typing
Restriction Enzyme Analysis
Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA
Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Ribotyping
Immunological Methods
Fluorescent Antibody
Enrichment Serology
Salmonella 1-2 Test
Radioimmunoassay
ELISA
Gel Diffusion
Immunomagnetic Separation
Hemagglutination
Bioassay and Related Methods
Whole-Animal Assays
Mouse Lethality
Suckling (Infant) Mouse
Rabbit and Mouse Diarrhea
Monkey Feeding
Kitten (Cat) Test
Rabbit and Guinea Pig Skin Tests
Sereny and Anton Tests
Animal Models Requiring Surgical Procedures
Ligated Loop Techniques
The RITARD Model
Cell Culture Systems
Human Mucosal Cells
Human Fetal Intestine
Human Ileal and Intestinal Cells
Guinea Pig Intestinal Cells
HeLa Cells
Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells
Vero Cells
Y-1 Adrenal Cell Assay
Other Assays
Food Preservation and Some Properties of Psychrotrophs, Thermophiles, and Radiation-Resistant Bacteria
Food Preservation with Chemicals
Benzoic Acid and the Parabens
Sorbic Acid
The Propionates
Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfites
Nitrites and Nitrates
Organisms Affected
The Perigo Factor
Interaction with Cure Ingredients and Other Factors
Nitrosamines
Nitrite-Sorbate and other Nitrite Combinations
Mode of Action
Summary of Nitrite Effects
NaCl and Sugars
Indirect Antimicrobials
Antioxidants
Flavoring Agents
Spices and Essential Oils
Medium-Chain Fatty Acids and Esters
Acetic and Lactic Acids
Antibiotics and Bacteriocins
Nisin and Other Bacteriocins
Monensin
Natamycin
Tetracyclines
Subtilin
Tylosin
Antifungal Agents for Fruits
Ethylene and Propylene Oxides
Miscellaneous Chemical Preservatives
Food Preservation with Modified Atmospheres
Definitions
Hypobaric Storage
Vacuum Packaging
Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Equilibrium-Modified Atmosphere
Controlled-Atmosphere Packaging or Storage
Primary Effects of CO[subscript 2] on Microorganisms
Mode of Action
Food Products
Fresh and Processed Meats
Poultry
Seafoods
The Safety of MAP Foods
Clostridium botulinum
Listeria monocytogenes
Other Pathogens
Spoilage of MAP and Vacuum-Packaged Meats
Volatile Components of Vacuum-Packaged Meats and Poultry
Radiation Preservation of Foods and Nature of Microbial Radiation Resistance
Characteristics of Radiations of Interest in Food Preservation
Ultraviolet Light
Beta Rays
Gamma Rays
X-Rays
Microwaves
Principles Underlying the Destruction of Microorganisms by Irradiation
Types of Organisms
Numbers of Organisms
Composition of Suspending Menstrum (Food)
Presence or Absence of Oxygen
Physical State of Food
Age of Organisms
Processing of Foods for Irradiation
Selection of Foods
Cleaning of Foods
Packing
Blanching or Heat Treatment
Application of Radiation
Gamma Radiation
Electron Beams/Accelerated Electrons
Radappertization, Radicidation, and Radurization of Foods
Definitions
Radappertization
Radicidation
Radurization
Legal Status of Food Irradiation
Effect of Irradiation on Food Quality
Storage Stability of Irradiated Foods
Nature of Radiation Resistance of Microorganisms
Biology of Extremely Resistant Species
Apparent Mechanisms of Resistance
Low-Temperature Food Preservation and Characteristics of Psychrotrophic Microorganisms
Definitions
Temperature Growth Minima
Preparation of Foods for Freezing
Freezing of Foods and Freezing Effects
Storage Stability of Frozen Foods
Effect of Freezing on Microorganisms
Effects of Thawing
Some Characteristics of Psychrotrophs and Psychrophiles
The Effect of Low Temperatures on Microbial Physiologic Mechanisms
Nature of the Low Heat Resistance of Psychrotrophs
High-Temperature Food Preservation and Characteristics of Thermophilic Microorganisms
Factors Affecting Heat Resistance in Microorganisms
Water
Fat
Salts
Carbohydrates
pH
Proteins and Other Substances
Numbers of Organisms
Age of Organisms
Growth Temperature
Inhibitory Compounds
Time and Temperature
Effect of Ultrasonics
Relative Heat Resistance of Microorganisms
Spore Resistance
Thermal Destruction of Microorganisms
Thermal Death Time
D Value
z Value
F Value
Thermal Death Time Curve
12-D Concept
Some Characteristics of Thermophiles
Enzymes
Ribosomes
Flagella
Other Aspects of Thermophilic Microorganisms
Nutrient Requirements
Oxygen Tension
Cellular Lipids
Cellular Membranes
Effect of Temperature
Genetics
Canned Food Spoilage
Low Acid
Acid
High Acid
Preservation of Foods by Drying
Preparation and Drying of Low-Moisture Foods
Effect of Drying on Microorganisms
Storage Stability of Dried Foods
Intermediate-Moisture Foods
Preparation of IMF
Microbial Aspects of IMF
Storage Stability of IMF
IMF and Glass Transition
Other Food Preservation Methods
High-Pressure Processing
Some Principles and Effects of HHP on Foods and Organisms
Effects of HHP on Specific Foodborne Organisms
Pulsed Electric Fields
Aseptic Packaging
Manothermosonication (Thermoultrasonication)
Indicators of Food Safety and Quality, Principles of Quality Control, and Microbial Criteria
Indicators of Food Microbial Quality and Safety
Indicators of Product Quality
Indicators of Food Safety
Coliforms
Enterococci
Bifidobacteria
Coliphages
The Possible Overuse of Fecal Indicator Organisms
Predictive Microbiology/Microbial Modeling
The HACCP System and Food Safety
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point System
Prerequisite Programs
Definitions
HACCP Principles
Some Limitations of HACCP
Microbiological Criteria
Definitions
Sampling Plans
Microbiological Criteria and Food Safety
Microbiological Criteria for Various Products
Other Criteria/Guidelines
Foodborne Disease
Introduction to Foodborne Pathogens
Introduction
The Fecal-Oral Transmission of Foodborne Pathogens
Host Invasion
"Universal" Requirements
Attachment Sites
Sigma Factors and the Acid Tolerance Response
Pathogenesis
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Summary
Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis
Species of Concern in Foods
Habitat and Distribution
Incidence in Foods
Nutritional Requirements for Growth
Temperature Growth Range
Effect of Salts and Other Chemicals
Effect of pH, Water Activity, and Other Parameters
NaCl and pH
pH, a[subscript w], and Temperature
NaNO[subscript 2], Eh, pH, and Temperature of Growth
Staphylococcal Enterotoxins: Types and Incidence
Chemical and Physical Properties
Production
Mode of Action
The Gastroenteritis Syndrome
Incidence and Vehicle Foods
Ecology of S. aureus Growth
Prevention of Staphylococcal and Other Food-Poisoning Syndromes
Food Poisoning Caused by Gram-Positive Sporeforming Bacteria
Clostridium perfringens Food Poisoning
Distribution of C. perfringens
Characteristics of the Organism
The Enterotoxin
Vehicle Foods and Symptoms
Prevention
Botulism
Distribution of C. botulinum
Growth of C. botulinum Strains
Ecology of C. Botulinum Growth
Concerns for Sous Vide and Related Food Products
Nature of the Botulinal Neurotoxins
The Adult Botulism Syndrome: Incidence and Vehicle Foods
Infant Botulism
Bacillus Cereus Gastroenteritis
B. cereus Toxins
Diarrheal Syndrome
Emetic Syndrome
Foodborne Listeriosis
Taxonomy of Listeria
Serotypes
Subspecies Typing
Growth
Effect of pH
Combined Effect of pH and NaCl
Effect of Temperature
Effect of a[subscript w]
Distribution
The Environment
Foods and Humans
Prevalence
Thermal Properties
Dairy Products
Nondairy Products
Effect of Sublethal Heating on Thermotolerance
Virulence Properties
Listeriolysin O and Ivanolysin O
Intracellular Invansion
Monocytosis-Producing Activity
Sphingomyelinase
Animal Models and Infectious Dose
Incidence and Nature of the Listeriosis Syndromes
Incidence
Source of Pathogens
Syndromes
Resistance to Listeriosis
Persistence of L. monocytogenes in Foods
Regulatory Status of L. Monocytogenes in Foods
Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Salmonella and Shigella
Salmonellosis
Serotyping of Salmonella
Distribution
Growth and Destruction of Salmonellae
The Salmonella Food-Poisoning Syndrome
Salmonella Virulence Properties
Incidence and Vehicle Foods
Prevention and Control of Salmonellosis
Competitive Exclusion to Reduce Salmonellae Carriage in Poultry
Shigellosis
Foodborne Cases
Virulence Properties
Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Escherichia coli
Serological Classification
The Recognized Virulence Groups
Enteroaggregative E. coli
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli
Enteroinvasive E. coli
Enteropathogenic E. coli
Enterotoxigenic E. coli
Prevention
Travelers' Diarrhea
Foodborne Gastroenteritis Caused by Vibrio, Yersinia, and Campylobacter Species
Vibriosis (Vibrio parahaemolyticus)
Growth Conditions
Virulence Properties
Gastroenteritis Syndrome and Vehicle Foods
Other Vibrios
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio vulnificus
Vibrio alginolyticus and V. hollisae
Yersiniosis (Yersinia enterocolitica)
Growth Requirements
Distribution
Serovars and Biovars
Virulence Factors
Incidence of Y. enterocolitica in Foods
Gastroenteritis Syndrome and Incidence
Campylobacteriosis (Campylobacter jejuni)
Distribution
Virulence Properties
Enteritis Syndrome and Prevalence
Prevention
Foodborne Animal Parasites
Protozoa
Giardiasis
Amebiasis
Toxoplasmosis
Sarcocystosis
Cryptosporidiosis
Cyclosporiasis
Flatworms
Fascioliasis
Fasciolopsiasis
Paragonimiasis
Clonorchiasis
Diphyllobothriasis
Cysticercosis/Taeniasis
Roundworms
Trichinosis
Anisakiasis
Mycotoxins
Aflatoxins
Alternaria Toxins
Citrinin
Ochratoxins
Patulin
Penicillic Acid
Sterigmatocystin
Fumonisins
Sambutoxin
Zearalenone
Control of Production
Viruses and Some Other Proven and Suspected Foodborne Biohazards
Viruses
Incidence in Foods and the Environment
Destruction in Foods
Hepatitis A Virus
Norwalk and Related Viruses
Rotaviruses
Bacteria and Prions
Histamine-Associated (Scombroid) Poisoning
Aeromonas
Plesiomonas
Bacteroides fragilis
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Streptococcus iniae
Prion Diseases
Toxigenic Phytoplanktons
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
Ciguatera Poisoning
Domoic Acid
Pfiesteria piscicida
Relationships of Common Foodborne Genera of Gram-Negative Bacteria
Relationship of Common Foodborne Genera of Gram-Positive Bacteria
Biofilms
Grouping of the Gram-Negative Asporogenous Rods, Polar-Flagellate, Oxidase Positive, and Not Sensitive to 2.5 IU Penicillin, on the Results of Four Other Tests
Index

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