Earth System

ISBN-10: 0321597796
ISBN-13: 9780321597793
Edition: 3rd 2010
List price: $181.20 Buy it from $19.48
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Description: The first book of its kind to address the issues of global change from a true Earth systems perspective, The Earth System offers a solid emphasis on lessons from Earth's history that may guide decision-making in the future. Global Change;  More...

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Book details

List price: $181.20
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 7/31/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 8.75" wide x 10.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

The first book of its kind to address the issues of global change from a true Earth systems perspective, The Earth System offers a solid emphasis on lessons from Earth's history that may guide decision-making in the future. Global Change; Daisyworld: An Introduction to Systems; Global Energy Balance: The Greenhouse Effect; The Atmospheric Circulation System; The Circulation of the Oceans; The Cryosphere; Circulation of the Solid Earth: Plate Tectonics; Recycling of the Elements; Focus on the Biota: Metabolism, Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Origin of the Earth and of Life; Effect of Life on the Atmosphere: The Rise of Oxygen and Ozone; Long-Term Climate Regulation; Biodiversity Through Earth History; Pleistocene Glaciations; Global Warming, Part 1: The Scientific Evidence; Global Warming, Part 2: Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation; Ozone Depletion; Human Threats to Biodiversity; Climate Stability on Earth and Earth-Like Planets. A useful reference for anyone who wants to learn more about Earth processes to become a more well-informed consumer.

"Lee R. KumpGeology" and is now editor of the "Virtual Journal of Geobiology" and associate editor of "Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta." He is a fellow of the Geological Society of America, and received the Distinguished Service Medal from the Geological Society of America in 2000. Dr. Kump's research interests include the behavior of nutrient and trace elements in natural environments, the evolution of ocean and atmosphere composition on geologic time scales, biogeochemical cycling in aquatic environments, and environmental change during extreme events (mass extinctions, extreme warm periods, glaciations) in Earth history."James F. Kasting" is a Professor at Penn State University, where he holds joint appointments in the Departments of Geosciences and Meteorology and is an affiliate of the NASA Astrobiology Institute and Penn State's ESSC. He received his undergraduate degree from Harvard University in Chemistry and Physics and did his PhD in Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Michigan. Prior to coming to Penn State in 1988, he spent 7 year in the Space Science Division at NASA Ames Research Center. Dr. Kasting is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life. His research focuses on the evolution of planetary atmospheres, particularly the question of why the atmospheres of Mars and Venus are so different from that of Earth. Dr. Kasting is also interested in the question of whether habitable planets exist around other stars and how we might look for signatures of life by doing spectroscopy on their atmospheres."Robert G. Crane" received his PhD in Geography from theUniversity of Colorado, Boulder. After working as a Research Associate in the National Snow and Ice Data Center and the World Data Center-A for Glaciology in Boulder, he spent a year teaching at the University of Saskatchewan before moving to Penn State in 1985. Dr. Crane's research has been on microwave remote sensing of sea ice, ice-climate interactions, and, more recently, regional-scale climate change, climate downscaling techniques, and climate change and variability in southern Africa. He is coeditor of a text on the applications of artificial neural networks in geography. Currently Dr. Crane holds the position of Professor in the Department of Geography and an affiliate of the ESSC. He also serves as the Associate Dean for Education in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at Penn State.

Kasting-Pennsylvania State University

About the Authors
Preface
Global Change
Introduction
Global Change on Short Time Scales
A Closer Look: Are Hurricanes Getting Stronger with Time?
A Closer Look: The Discovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole
Global Change on Long Time Scales
Daisyworld: An Introduction to Systems
The Systems Approach
Thinking Quantitatively: Stability of Positive Feedback Loops
The Daisyworld Climate System
Useful Concepts: Graphs and Graph Making
External Forcing: The Response of Daisyworld to Increasing Solar Luminosity
Global Energy Balance: The Greenhouse Effect
Introduction
Electromagnetic Radiation
Temperature Scales
Blackbody Radiation
Planetary Energy Balance
A Closer Look: Planetary Energy Balance
Atmospheric Composition and Structure
Thinking Quantitatively: How the Greenhouse Effect Works: The One-Layer Atmosphere
Physical Causes of the Greenhouse Effect
Effect of Clouds on the Atmospheric Radiation Budget
Introduction to Climate Modeling
Climate Feedbacks
The Atmospheric Circulation System
The Global Circulatory Subsystems
The Atmospheric Circulation
A Closer Look: The Relationships between Temperature, Pressure, and Volumes-The Ideal Gas Law
A Closer Look: How Hurricanes (Tropical Cyclones) Work
Global Distributions of Temperature and Rainfall
The Circulation of the Oceans
Winds and Surface Currents
A Closer Look: Vorticity
A Closer Look: The 1982-1983 and 1997-1998 ENSO Events
The Circulation of the Deep Ocean
A Closer Look: The Salt Content of the Oceans and the Age of Earth
Useful Concepts: Isotopes and Their Uses
A Closer Look: Carbon-14-A Radioactive Clock
The Cryosphere
Introduction
River and Lake Ice, Seasonal Snow Cover, and Permafrost
Glaciers and Ice Sheets
Thinking Quantitatively: Movement of Glaciers
Sea Ice and Climate
Circulation of the Solid Earth: Plate Tectonics
Introduction
Anatomy of Earth
A Closer Look: The Principle of the Seismograph
The Theory of Plate Tectonics
Plates and Plate Boundaries
A Closer Look: Deep-Sea Life at Mid-Ocean Ridge Vents
The Physiology of the Solid Earth: What Drives Plate Tectonics?
A Closer Look: Radiometric Age Dating of Geological Materials
Recycling of the Lithosphere: The Rock Cycle
Plate Tectonics through Earth History
Recycling of the Elements: Carbon and Nutrient Cycles
Systems Approach to the Carbon Cycle
Useful Concepts: The Concept of the Mole
The Short-Term Organic Carbon Cycle
A Closer Look: Oxygen Minimum Zone
The Long-Term Organic Carbon Cycle
The Inorganic Carbon Cycle
Useful Concepts: pH
The Carbonate-Silicate Geochemical Cycle
A Closer Look: Biological Enhancement of Chemical Weathering
Links between the Organic and Inoganic Carbon Cycle
Phosphorus and Nitrogen Cycles
Focus on the Biota: Metabolism, Ecosystems, and Biodiversity
Life on Earth
Structure of the Biosphere
Ecosystems
A Closer Look: Physiological versus Ecological Optima for Growth
Biodiversity
Diversity of Interactions
Origin of Earth and of Life
Introduction
A Closer Look: Determining the Age of Earth
Formation of the Solar System
A Closer Look: Main-Sequence Stars and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Formation of the Atmosphere and Ocean
A Closer Look: The Nice Model of Solar System Formation
The Origin of Life
A Closer Look: Oxidation of the Atmosphere by Escape of Hydrogen
A Closer Look: Probiotic O2 Concentrations
A Closer Look: What Does It Mean to Be Alive?
A Closer Look: The Compounds of Life
Effect of Life on the Atmosphere: The Rise of Oxygen and Ozone
Introduction
Effect of Life on the Early Atmosphere
The Rise of Oxygen
Useful Concepts: Oxidations States of Iron
A Closer Look: Mass-Independent Sulfur Isotope Ratios and What They Tell US about the Rise of Atmospheric O2
The Rise of Ozone
Variations in Atmospheric O2 Over the Last 2 Billion Years
Thinking Quantitatively: Carbon Isotopes and Organic Carbon Burial
Modern Controls on Atmospheric O2
Long-Term Climate Regulation
Introduction
The Faint Young Sun Paradox Revisited
The Long-Term Climate Record
Thinking Quantitatively: Energy Balance Modeling of the Snowball Earth
A Closer Look: How Did Life Survive the Snowball Earth?
Variations in Atmospheric CO2 and Climate During the Phanerozoic
Biodiversity through Earth History
The Fossil Record of Biodiversity
Useful Concepts: Taxonomy
The Creataceous-Tertiary Mass Extinction
A Closer Look: The K-T Strangelove Ocean
Extraterrestrial Influences and Extinction
Pleistocene Glaciations
Geologic Evidence of Pleistocene Glaciation
Milankovitch Cycles
Thinking Quantitatively: Kepler's Laws
Thinking Quantitatively: Effect of the Sun and Moon on Earth's Obliquity and Precession
Glacial Climate Feedbacks
A Closer Look: Stochastic Resonance and Rapid Climate Change
Global Warming, Part 1: Recent and Future Climate
Introduction
Holocene Climate Change
Carbon Reservoirs and Fluxes
CO2 Removal Processes and Time Scales
A Closer Look: The Chemistry of CO2 Uptake
Projections of Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations and Climate
A Closer Look: Three-Dimensional General Circulation Models (GCMs)
A Closer Look: Long-Term CO2 Projections
Global Warming, Part 2: Impacts, Adaptation, and Mitigation
Introduction
Changes in Sea Level
Effects on Ecosystems
Human Impacts of Global Warming
Adapting to Global Warming
Policies to Slow Global Warming
Economic Consequences of Global Warming
Oxone Depletion
Introduction
Ultraviolet Radiation and Its Biological Effects
Ozone Vertical Distribution and Column Depth
The Chapman Mechanism
Catalytic Cycles of Nitrogen, Chlorine, and Bromine
Sources and Sinks of Ozone-Depleting Compounds
The Antarctic Ozone Hole
A Closer Look: How the Link between Freons and Ozone Depletion Was Discovered
Evidence of Midlatitude Ozone Depletion
Mechanisms for Halting Ozone Depltion
Human Threats to Biodiversity
Introduction
The Modern Extinction
A Closer Look: Other Consequences of Tropical Deforestation
Why We Should Care about Biodiversity
Climate Stability on Earth and Earthlike Planets
Introduction
Climate Evolution in the Distant Future
Climate Evolution on Venus and Mars
A Closer Look: A Geoengineering Solution to Earth's Future Climate Problems
Habitable Planets around Other Stars
The Drake Equation
Ensuring Our Long-Term Survival
Glossary
Index

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