Security, Territory, Population Lectures at the Coll�ge de France 1977--1978

ISBN-10: 0312203608

ISBN-13: 9780312203603

Edition: N/A

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Description: Picador is proud to publish the fifth volume in Foucault's prestigious, groundbreaking series of lectures at the College de France from 1970 to 1984 Marking a major development in Foucault's thinking, this book takes as its starting point the notion of "biopower," studying the foundations of this new technology of power over populations. Distrinct from punitive disciplinary systems, the mechanisms of power are here finely entwined with the technologies of security. But in this volume, Foucault beings to turn his attention to the history of "governmentality," shifting from the question of biopower to that of government. In light of Foucault's later work, these lectures illustrate a radical turning point at which the transition to the problematic of the "government of self and others" would begin.

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Book details

List price: $20.00
Publisher: Picador
Publication date: 2/3/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 464
Size: 5.50" wide x 8.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 0.990
Language: English

Michel Foucault was born on October 15, 1926, in Poitiers, France, and was educated at the Sorbonne, in Paris. He taught at colleges all across Europe, including the Universities of Lill, Uppsala, Hamburg, and Warsaw, before returning to France. There he taught at the University of Paris and the College of France, where he served as the chairman of History of Systems of Thought until his death. Regarded as one of the great French thinkers of the twentieth century, Foucault's interest was in the human sciences, areas such as psychiatry, language, literature, and intellectual history. He made significant contributions not just to the fields themselves, but to the way these areas are studied, and is particularly known for his work on the development of twentieth-century attitudes toward knowledge, sexuality, illness, and madness. Foucault's initial study of these subjects used an archaeological method, which involved sifting through seemingly unrelated scholarly minutia of a certain time period in order to reconstruct, analyze, and classify the age according to the types of knowledge that were possible during that time. This approach was used in Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, for which Foucault received a medal from France's Center of Scientific Research in 1961, The Birth of the Clinic, The Order of Things, and The Archaeology of Knowledge. Foucault also wrote Discipline and Punishment: The Birth of the Prison, a study of the ways that society's views of crime and punishment have developed, and The History of Sexuality, which was intended to be a six-volume series. Before he could begin the final two volumes, however, Foucault died of a neurological disorder in 1984.

MICHEL FOUCAULT acknowledged as the pre-eminent philosopher of France in the 1970s and 1980s, continues to have enormous impact throughout the world in many disciplines. ARNOLD I. DAVIDSON is the Robert O. Anderson Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago, USAnbsp;and Professor of the History of Political Philosophy at the University of Pisa, Italy. He is co-editor of the volume Michel Foucault: Philosophie . GRAHAM BURCHELL is Translator, and has written essays on Michel Foucault. He is an Editor of The Foucault Effect .

Forward
Introduction
11 January 1978
General perspective of the lectures: the study of bio-power
Five proposals on the analysis of mechanisms of power
Legal system, disciplinary mechanisms, and security apparatuses ( dipositifs )
Two examples
The punishment of theft
The treatment of leprosy, plague, and smallpox
General features of security apparatuses( 1 ): the spaces of security
The example of the town
Three examples of planning urban space in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
Alexandre Le Ma�“tre���s La Métrpolitée ( 1682 )
Richelieu
Nantes
18 January 1978
General features of apparatuses of security ( II ): relationship to the event: the art of governing and treatment of the uncertain ( l���aléatoire )
The problem of scarcity ( la disette ) in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
From the mercantilists to the physiocrats
Differences between apparatuses of security and disciplinary mechanisms in ways of dealing with the event
The new governmental rationality and the emergence of �ǣpopulation.�Ǡ
Conclusion on liberalism: liberty as ideology and technique of government
25 January 1978
General features of apparatuses of security ( III )
Normation ( normation ) and normalization
The example of the epidemic ( smallpox ) and inoculation campaigns in the eighteenth century
The emergence of new notions: case, risk, danger, and crisis
The forms of normalization in discipline and in mechanisms of security
Deployment of a new political technology: the government of populations
The problem of population in the mercantilists and the physiocrats
The population as operator ( operateur ) of transformations in domains of knowledge: from the analysis of wealth to political economy, from natural history to biology, from general grammar to historical philology
1 February 1978
The problem of �ǣgovernment in the sixteenth century
Multiplicity of practices of government ( government of self, government of souls, government of children, etcetera )
The specific problem of the government of the state
The point of repulsion of the literature on government: Machiavelli���s The Prince
Brief history of the reception of The Prince until the nineteenth century
The art of government distinct from the Prince���s simple artfulness
Example of this new art of government: Guillaume de la Perriÿre Le Miroir politique ( 1555 )
A government that finds its end in the �ǣthings�Ǡ to be directed
Decline of law to the advantage of a variety of tactics
The historical and institutional obstacles to the implementation of this art of government until the eighteenth century
The problem of population an essential factor in unblocking the art of government
The triangle formed by government, population, and political economy
Questions of method: the project of a history of �ǣgovernmentality.�Ǡ Overvaluation of the problem of the state
8 February 1978
Why study governmentality?
The problem of the state and population
Reminder of the general project: triple displacement of the analysis in relation to ( a ) the institution, ( b ) the function, and ( c ) the object
The stake of this year���s lectures
Elements for a history of �ǣgovernment.�Ǡ Its semantic field from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century
The idea of the government of men. Its sources
The organization of a pastoral power in the pre-Christian and Christian East
Spiritual direction ( direction de conscience )
First outline of the pastorate. Its specific features
It is exercised over a multiplicity on the move
It is a fundamentally beneficent power with salvation of the flocks as its objective
It is a power which individualizes. Omnes et singulatim. The paradox of the shepherd ( berger )
The institutionalization of the pastorate by the Christian Church
15 February 1978
Analysis of the pastorate ( continuation )
The problem of the shepherd-flock relationship in Greek literature and thought: Homer, the Pythagorean tradition. Rareness of the shepherd metaphor in classical political literature ( Isocrates, Demosthenes )
A major exception: Plato���s The Statesman
The use of the metaphor in other Plato texts ( Critias, Laws, The Republic )
The critique of the idea of a magistrate-shepherd in The Statesman
The pastoral metaphor applied to the doctor, farmer, gymnast, and teacher
The history of the pastorate in the West, as a model of the government of men, in inseparable from Christianity
Its transformations and crises up to the eighteenth century
Need for a history of the pastorate
Characteristics of the �ǣgovernment of souls�Ǡ: encompassing power coextensive with the organization of the Church and distinct from political power
The problem of the relationships between political power and pastoral power in the West. Comparison with the Russian tradition
22 February 1978Analysis of the pastorate ( end )
Specificity of the Christian pastorate in comparison with Eastern and Hebraic traditions
An art of governing men. Its role in the history of governmentality
Main features of the Christian pastorate from the third to the sixth century ( Saint John Chrysostom, Saint Cyprian, Saint Ambrose, Gregory the Great, Cassian, Saint Benedict )
The relationship to salvation
An economy of merits and faults
The principle of analytical responsibility
The principle of exhaustive and instantaneous transfer
The principle of sacrificial reversal
The principle of alternate correspondence
The relationship to the law: institution of a relationship of complete subordination of the sheep to the person who directs them
An individual and non-finalized relationship
Difference between Greek and Christian apatheia
The relationship to the truth; the production of hidden truths
Pastoral teaching and spiritual direction
Conclusion: an absolutely new form of power that marks the appearance of specific modes of individualization
Its decisive importance for the history of the subject
1 March 1978
The notion of �ǣconduct.�Ǡ
The crisis of the pastorate
Revolts of conduct in the field of the pastorate
The shift of forms of resistance to the borders of political institutions in the modern age: examples of the army, secret societies, and medicine
Problem of vocabulary: �ǣRevolts of conduct,�Ǡ �ǣinsubordination�Ǡ ( insoumission ),�Ǡ �ǣdissidence,�Ǡ and �ǣcounter-conduct.�Ǡ Pastoral counter-conducts
Historical reminder
Asceticism
Communities
Mysticism
Scripture
Eschatological beliefs
Conclusion: what is at stake in the reference to the notion of �ǣpastoral power�Ǡ for an analysis of the modes of exercise of power in general
8 March 1978
From the pastoral of souls to the political government of men
General context of this transformation: the crisis of the pastorate and the insurrections of conduct in the sixteenth century
The Protestant Reformation and the Counter Reformation
Other factors
Two notable phenomena; the intensification of the religious pastorate and the increasing question of conduct, on both private and public levels
Governmental reason specific to the exercise of sovereignty
Comparison with Saint Thomas
Break-up of the cosmological-theological continuum
The question of the art of governing
Comment on the problem of intelligibility in history
Raison d�����tat ( 1 ): newness and object of scandal
Three focal points of the polemical debate around raison d�����tat: Machiavelli, �ǣpolitics�Ǡ ( la �ǣpolitique�Ǡ ), and the �ǣstate.�Ǡ
15 March 1978
Raison d�����tat ( II ): its definition and principal characteristics in the seventeenth century
The new model of historical temporality entailed by raison d�����tat
Specific features of raison d�����tat with regard to pastoral government
The problem of salvation: the theory of coup d�����tat ( Naudé ). Necessity, violence, theatricality
The problem of obedience. Bacon: the question of sedition. Differences between Bacon and Machiavelli
The problem of truth: from the wisdom of the prince to knowledge of the state. Birth of statistics. The problem of the secret
The reflexive prism in which the problem of the state appeared
Presence-absence of �ǣpopulation�Ǡ in this new problematic
22 March 1978Raison d�����tat ( III )
The state as principle of intelligibility and as objective
The functioning of this governmental reason
In theoretical texts
The theory of the preservation of the state
In political practice. Competition between states
The Treaty of Westphalia and the end of the Roman Empire
Force, a new element of political reason
Politics and the dynamic of forces
The first technological ensemble typical of this new art of government: the diplomatic-military system
Its objective: the search for a European balance
What is Europe? The idea of �ǣbalance.�Ǡ
Its instruments
War
Diplomacy
The installation of a permanent military apparatus (dispositif)
29 March 1978
The second technological assemblage characteristic of the new art of government according to raison d�����tat: police. Traditional meanings of the word up to the sixteenth century. Its new sense in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: calculation and technique making possible the good sue of the state���s forces
The triple relationship between the system of European balance and police
Diversity of Italian, German, and French situations
Turquet de Mayerne, La Monarchie aristodémocratique
The control of human activity as constitutive element of the force of the state
Objects of police
The number of citizens
The necessities of life
Health
Occupations
The coexistence and circulation of men
Police as the art of managing life and the well-being of populations
5 April 1978
Police ( continuation )
Delamare
The town as site for the development of police. Police and urban regulation. Urbanization of the territory. Relationship between police and the mercantilist problematic
Emergence of the market town
Methods of police. Difference between police and justice. An essentially regulatory type of power. Regulation and discipline
Return to the problem of grain
Criticism of the police state on the basis of the problem of scarcity
The theses of the économistes
The transformations of raison d�����tat
The naturalness of society
New relationships between power and knowledge
Taking charge of the population ( public hygiene, demography, etc. )
New forms of state intervention
The status of liberty
Elements of the new art of government: economic practice, management of the population, law and respect for liberties, police with a repressive function
Different forms of counter-conduct relative to this governmentality
General conclusion
Course Summary
Course Context
Index of Names
Subject Index
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