Structuring Paragraphs and Essays A Guide to Effective Writing

ISBN-10: 0312195583
ISBN-13: 9780312195588
Edition: 5th 2001
List price: $64.99
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Book details

List price: $64.99
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Bedford/Saint Martin's
Publication date: 11/15/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 503
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.112
Language: English

Writing
Using A Process for Writing
Introduction: Attitude Is Everything
Activity: Developing a Positive Attitude toward Writing
Paragraph and Process: The General-to-Specific Model
The General-to-Specific Model
Understand the Importance of Specifics
Activity: Identifying General and Specific Statements
Understand Levels of Generality
Activity: Determining Levels of Generality
Case Study: Overview of a Writer's Process
Determine Purpose and Audience
Find and Explore a Topic
Write a Topic Sentence with a Controlling Idea
Develop Support for the Topic Sentence
Organize Support and Write a Draft
Revise for Focus, Unity, Support, and Coherence
How to Determine Your Purpose and Audience
Determine Your Purpose
Writing to Understand
Writing to Communicate Understanding
Writing to Inform
Writing to Persuade
Activity: Determining Purpose
Consider Your Audience
Writing for Ourselves
Writing for Others
Activity: Considering Audience
Writer's Checklist: Purpose and Audience
How to Find and Explore a Topic
Discovering a Topic
What Makes a Good Topic?
Where Do Writers Discover Good Topics?
Topics from Experience
Topics from Reading
Topic Sampler
Activity: Discovering Something to Write About
Prewriting to Narrow and Explore Your Topic
Brainstorming
Freewriting
Activity: Using Brainstorming and Freewriting
Clustering
Asking Questions
Activity: Asking Questions to Narrow a Topic
Keeping a Writer's Journal
Considering Audience
Writer's Checklist: Topic
How to Write a Topic Sentence
What Is a Topic Sentence?
The Topic Sentence as Contract
What Is a Controlling Idea?
The Difference between a Topic and a Controlling Idea
Activity: Identifying Topic and Controlling Idea
Deciding on a Controlling Idea
What If My Controlling Idea Is Too Focused?
What If My Controlling Idea Is Too Vague?
Activity: Expressing a Controlling Idea
Exploring Topics for Controlling Ideas
Guidelines for Giving Feedback
Writer's Checklist: Topic Sentence
How to Develop Support for Your Topic Sentence
What Is Support?
Strategies for Discovering Details, Facts, and Evidence
Return to Your Prewriting
Do Some More Prewriting
Do Some Research
Activity: Discovering Details, Facts, and Evidence
Building a Support Structure
Primary Supports
Activity: Choosing Primary Supports
Activity: Writing Primary Support Sentences
Secondary Supports
Activity: Writing Secondary Support Sentences
Guidelines for Keeping a Portfolio
Writer's Checklist: Support
How to Organize Support and Write a Draft
Three ways to Organize Your Support
Time Order
Activity: Placing Events in Time Order
Space Order
Activity: Making a Floor Plan
Order of Importance
Activity: Determining Importance
Tips for Writing a Draft
Writer's Checklist: Organizing And Drafting
How to Revise for Stronger Writing
What is "Revision"?
Revise for Focus
Revise for Unity
Activity: Sharpening Unity
Revise for Support
How Much Support Is Enough?
Activity: Providing More Details
Revise for Coherence
Use Transitional Words and Phrases
Activity: Using Transitional Words and Phrases
Repeat Key Words and Phrases
Activity: Identifying Key Words and Phrases
Combine Sentences
Activity: Combining Sentences
Maintain Grammatical Consistency
Consistent Pronoun Person
Consistent Verb Tense
Activity: Eliminating Shifts in Pronoun Person and Verb Tense
Writer's Checklist: Revising
Other Rewriting Activities
How to Edit for Clearer Writing
Writer's Checklist: Editing
Editing Activities
Strategies for Writing Paragraphs
Narration
What Is Narration?
Guidelines for Writing a Narration Paragraph
Make a Point
Read a Narration Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Narration Paragraph?
Read a Revised Narration Paragraph
Activity: Identifying the Point of a Narrative
Include the Most Useful Events of the Story
Read a Narration Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Narration Paragraph
Read a Revised Narration Paragraph
Activity: Choosing Events to Support a Main Point
Include Enough Details to Make the Story Vivid and Lively
Read a Narration Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Narration Paragraph
Read a Revised Narration Paragraph
Writer's Checklist: Narration
Example
What Is Example?
Guidelines for Writing an Example Paragraph
Choose Appropriate Examples
Read an Example Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Example Paragraph
Read a Revised Example Paragraph
Choose Specific Examples
Read an Example Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Example Paragraph
Read a Revised Example Paragraph
Activity: Identify Examples That Are Appropriate and Specific
Provide Enough Examples
Read an Example Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Example Paragraph
Read a Revised Example Paragraph
Activity: Generating Enough Examples for a Controlling Idea
Writer's Checklist: Example
Cause and Effect
What Is Cause and Effect?
Guidelines for Writing a Cause and Effect Paragraph
Cite the Most Important and Convincing Causes or Effects
Read a Cause and Effect Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Cause and Effect Paragraph?
Read a Revised Cause and Effect Paragraph
Read Another Cause and Effect Paragraph
Activity: Which Is More Useful: Explaining Causes or Presenting Effects?
Do Not Mistake Conditions for Active Causes and Effects
Read a Cause and Effect Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Cause and Effect Paragraph?
Writer's Checklist: Cause and Effect
Process Analysis
What Is Process Analysis?
Guidelines for Writing a Process Analysis Paragraph
Present All of the Steps
Read a Process Analysis Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Process Analysis Paragraph?
Read a Revised Process Analysis Paragraph
Present the Steps in a Logical Order
Read a Process Analysis Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Process Analysis Paragraph?
Read a Revised Process Analysis Paragraph
Activity: Listing the Steps in a Process
Writer's Checklist: Process Analysis
Definition
What Is Definition?
Guidelines for Writing a Definition Paragraph
Decide between Formal and Informal Definition
Place the Term in a Meaningful Class and Distinguish It from Other Items in the Class
Read a Definition Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Definition Paragraph?
Read a Revised Definition Paragraph
Activity: Identifying Class and Distinguishing Characteristics
Develop the Definition
Read a Definition Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Definition Paragraph?
Read a Revised Definition Paragraph
Writer's Checklist: Definition
Comparison and Contrast
What Are Comparison and Contrast?
Guidelines for Writing a Comparison or Contrast Paragraph
Compare or Contrast Items in the Same Class
Make Sure the Class Is Meaningful
Read a Comparison/Contrast Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Comparison/Contrast Paragraph?
Read a Revised Comparison/Contrast Paragraph
Activity: Identifying Class for a Comparison or Contrast Paragraph
Choose Clear Points of Comparison or Contrast
Read a Comparison/Contrast Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Comparison/Contrast Paragraph?
Read a Revised Comparison/Contrast Paragraph
Two Ways to Organize a Comparison/Contrast Paragraph
Point-to-Point
Whole-to-Whole
Activity: Point-to-Point or Whole-to-Whole?
Writer's Checklist: Comparison and Contrast
Classification
What Is Classification?
Guidelines for Writing a Classification Paragraph
Select a Single Basis for Classifying Your Subject
Place the Term in a Meaningful Class and Distinguish It from Other Items in the Class
Read a Classification Paragraph
What's Wrong with This Classification Paragraph?
Select Categories That Do Not Overlap
Read a Revised Classification Paragraph
Activity: Identifying a Basis for Classification
Choose Useful Examples
Activity: Choosing Useful Examples
A Word of Caution: Avoid Oversimplification
Writer's Checklist: Classification
Strategies for Writing Essays
Writing an Essay by Expanding a Paragraph
How Is an Essay Different from a Paragraph?
Understanding the 1-3-1 Essay
Adapting the 1-3-1 Essay
Writing the Essay
Five Basic Steps
Following the Five Basic Steps
Step 1: Make the Topic Sentence of the Paragraph the Thesis Sentence of the Essay
Step 2: Make Each of the Primary Supports in the Paragraph the Topic Sentence of a Body Paragraph in the Essay
Step 3: Write a Paragraph Developing Each Point of Primary Support
Activity: Analyzing Secondary Supports
Step 4: Write an Introductory Paragraph for the Essay
Activity: Capturing an Audience
Step 5: Write a Concluding Paragraph for the Essay
The Completed 1-3-1 Essay
Writer's Checklist: Paragraph to Essay
Writing an Essay from Scratch
Determine Your Purpose and Audience
Case Study: Writing an Informative Essay
Find and Explore a Topic
Activity: Narrowing a Topic
Write a Thesis Sentence for Your Essay
Find a Happy Medium
Develop Support for Your Thesis Sentence
Decide on a Method of Development
Choose the Best Support Points
Outline Your Support Points
The Traditional Outline
The Organizational Tree
Activity: Structuring Your Support
Organize Support and Write a Draft
Three Ways to Organize Your Support
Write a Draft
Write Topic Sentences for the Body Paragraphs
Develop Each Body Paragraph by Adding Details, Facts, and Evidence
Write an Introductory Paragraph
Write a Concluding Paragraph
Writer's Checklist: Writing an Essay
Writing a Persuasive Essay
What Is Persuasion?
Activity: Writing Thesis Sentences and Writing Propositions
The Structure of the Persuasive Essay
A Process for Writing a Persuasive Essay
Discover a Topic for a Persuasive Essay
Determine Your Purpose and Audience
Write a Proposition
Activity: What Makes a Good Proposition?
Case Study: Writing a Persuasive Essay
Develop Support for the Proposition
Choose the Most Convincing Points of Support
Outline your Major Points and Supporting Evidence
Organize Support and Write a Draft
Three Ways to Organize Your Support
Write a Draft
Write Topic Sentences for the Body Paragraphs
Develop Each Body Paragraph by Adding Specific Evidence
Write an Introductory Paragraph
Activity: Writing an Introductory Paragraph for a Persuasive Essay
Write a Concluding Paragraph
Revise and Edit Your Essay
Writer's Checklist: Writing a Persuasive Essay
Strategies for Completing Other Writing Tasks
Writing from Reading
Reading for Understanding
Prepare to Read
Skim First
Read a Second Time as an Active Reader
Summarize Major Points
Identify Supporting Evidence
Respond to Ideas
Case Study: Writing a Response to a Reading
Planning Your Response
Identify Key Words in the Writing Assignment
Write a One-Sentence Response to the Assignment
Develop Support for Your Topic Sentence
Organize Your Response
Drafting and Revising
Draft from Your Outline
Revise for Focus, Unity, Support, and Coherence
Edit Your Work Carefully
Citing Sources
Develop an Organized Note-taking Strategy
To Cite or Not to Cite
Develop Effective and Honest Paraphrasing Habits
Follow Standard Citation and Documentation Models
Writer's Checklist: Writing from Reading
Brief Documentation Guide
MLA Format for In-Text Citations
MLA Format for a List of Works Cited
Readings
Roy Rowan, "Homeless Bound"
Lorraine Ali, "Do I Look Like Public Enemy Number One?"
Nickie McWhirter, "What You Do Is What You Are"
Jay Ingram, "Welcome to the Tongue-Show"
Deborah Tannen, "You Be the Monster and Chase Me: Children at Play"
J. Madeleine Nash, "The Case for Cloning"
Writing Timed Paragraphs and Essays
How to Recognize a Discussion Question
Understanding the Question
Paragraph or Essay
What Method of Development?
Case Study: Writing a Timed Essay
Collecting Facts
Organizing and Writing the Paragraph or Essay
Creating a Topic Sentence or Thesis
Organizing Information
Drafting from the Rough Outline
Writer's Checklist: Writing Timed Paragraphs and Essays
Writing Online
What Are the Internet and the World Wide Web?
Electronic Mail (Email)
Email as a Tool in the Classroom
Email Basics
E-journals
Collaborative Tools on the Internet
Online Distance Education Courses
Chat Rooms
Message Boards (Bulletin Boards)
Netiquette
Strategies for Effective Writing Online
Consider Your Audience and Purpose
Case Study: Writing an Online Review
Brainstorm for Ideas before Starting to Write
Focus and Structure Your Message
Draft and Revise Your Message
Writer's Checklist: Writing Online
Career Communication Skills
Planning Career Communication
Performing a Personal Inventory
Answering the Employer's Need
Examining Job Ads
Exploring the Informal Job Market
Ethical Considerations
Application Letters That Get Results
Unsolicited Application Letters
Beginnings of Unsolicited Application Letters
Supporting Sections of Unsolicited Application Letters
Solicited Application Letters
Beginnings of Solicited Application Letters
Supporting Sections of Solicited Application Letters
Conclusions of Solicited Application Letters
Strategies for Effective R�©sum�©

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