Why So Slow? The Advancement of Women

ISBN-10: 0262720310
ISBN-13: 9780262720311
Edition: 1999
Authors: Virginia Valian
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Description: Using the concepts and data from psychology, sociology, biology and economics, Valian attempts to explain the disparity in the professional advancement of men and women. Only by understanding how our perceptions are skewed by gender schemas can we  More...

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Book details

List price: $35.00
Copyright year: 1999
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 1/7/1999
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 421
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 0.836
Language: English

Using the concepts and data from psychology, sociology, biology and economics, Valian attempts to explain the disparity in the professional advancement of men and women. Only by understanding how our perceptions are skewed by gender schemas can we know.

Preface
Acknowledgments
A Note on Method and Scope
Gender Schemas at Work
What Holds Up the Glass Ceiling?
Gender Schemas
Accumulation of Advantage
Schemas, Exceptions, and Fairness
Gender Schemas at Work
The Origins and Effects of Gender Schemas
Childhood Learning
Sex, Gender, and Schemas
The Cognition of Gender
Expectations and Gender Traits
Schemas and Professional Evaluations
Qualifications and Responsibilities
Self-Perception
Remedies
Gender Begins -- and Continues -- at Home
Turning Babies into Girls and Boys
Not Just a Baby
Not Just a Child
Turning Play into Work
Children's Chores
Gender and Play
Injustice at Home
Explaining Inequity at Home
Learning About Gender
Cognitive Components of Gender Knowledge
Influences of Adults and Peers
"The Boys Don't Cheer": Children's Play in Middle Childhood
Cultural Influences
Expectations and Children's School Performance
Why Do Girls and Women Do So Well?
Biology and Behavior
Sex Hormones
Within-Sex Variability
Variation in Trait Expression
Reproduction
Height
Voice Pitch
Behavioral Traits and Professional Achievement
Activity Level
Aggression
The Significance of Sex Differences
Biology and Cognition
Verbal Ability
Perceptual Speed
Mathematical Ability
Cross-Cultural Differences
Sex Differences
Early Childhood Differences
Nature of Difficulties with Word Problems
The Mathematics Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT-M)
Unconventional Problem Solving
Importance of Sex Differences
Spatial Visualization and Mental Rotation
Mental Rotation and Math Performance
Problem-Solving Strategies
Practice
Instructions
Time
Conclusion: The Significance of Cognitive Sex Differences
Schemas That Explain Behavior
How Schemas Affect Perceptions, Interpretations, and Expectations
Sex Differences
Who's Normal? Who's Better?
Origins of Gender Schemas
Entrenching Gender Schemas
Schema Interactions and Schema Clashes
Evaluating Women and Men
Perceptions of Leadership
Perceptions of Competence
Perceptions of Assertiveness
The Cost for a Woman of Being Masculine
The Cost for a Woman of Being Perceived as Feminine
Physical Attractiveness
Size of Pool
Accumulation of Advantage and Disadvantage
Effects on the Self
Expectation Effects
Conversational Effects, Sight Unseen
Gaze
Self-esteem and Goals
Expectations and Alternatives
Equity, Entitlement, and Perceptions of Bias
Interpreting Success and Failure
Explaining Others' Successes and Failures
Job Success
Job Failure
Omnicompetent Men
Understanding Our Own Successes and Failures
Dr. X
Understanding Dr. X
The Downside of the Male Attribution Pattern
Professor Y
Understanding Professor Y
The Downside of the Female Attribution Pattern
Good Attribution Patterns for Men and Women
The Costs of Effort
Women in the Professions
Understanding the Data
Aggregate and Cohort Data
Within-rank Comparisons
Equal Pay
Qualifications
Business
College Graduates
Careers of MBAs
Managers
International Business
The CIA
Engineers
Law
Structure of the Profession
Women's Representation in Law
Associates and Partners
Salary in Law Firms
In-house Lawyers
The Judiciary
Medicine
Sports
Participation
Coaches and Administrators
Professional Tennis
Summary
Gender Schemas
Women in Academia
The Status Structure of Academia
Salary
Across Disciplines
Humanities
Science and Engineering
Rank and Tenure
Rank Percentages
Gender Percentages
Rank and Tenure
Rank Across Disciplines
Tenure Across Disciplines
The Humanities
Science and Engineering
An Apparent Contradiction
Prestige of Institution and Teaching Load
Progress in Academia
A Case Study: Psychologists
Summary
Professional Performance and Human Values
Expectations
Human Capital
Performance Issues
Law
Academia
Quantity of Publications
Quality of Publications
Teaching
What Do Men and Women in the Professions Want?
Preferences on the Job
A Well-Rounded Life
Child Care
The Role of Gender Schemas
Affirmative Action and the Law
Affirmative Action Procedures
The Impact of Affirmative Action
How Has Affirmative Action Changed Organizations?
Gender Schemas as Barriers to Affirmative Action
What Impact Does Affirmative Action Have on Beneficiaries?
Should Affirmative Action Procedures Be Abolished?
Can We Neutralize the Psychological Costs of Affirmative Action?
The Role of Institutions
The Role of the Individual
Lawsuits
Partnership: A Case Study
Educating the Judiciary
Benefits of Successful Suits
Limitations of Successful Suits
Gender Schemas and Mixed Motives
Tenure: A Case Study
School Admission: Two Case Studies
Effects of Lawsuits on Employees and Observers
Effects of Lawsuits on Employers
The Future
Remedies
Toward Accurate Evaluations
Learning about Gender Schemas
Challenging Hypotheses
Educating Children
Reducing Reliance on Gender Schemas
Time
Attention
Accountability
Increasing the Number of Women in a Candidate Pool
Learning to Reason
Awareness Training
Institutional Policies
The Roles of Committed Leaders
Performance Criteria
Johns Hopkins--A Case Study
Costs and Benefits of Progressive Policies
Equalizing the Accumulation of Advantage
Be Where Women Are Well-Represented
Be Impersonal, Friendly, and Respectful
Build Power
Seek Information
Become an Expert
Get Endorsed by Legitimate Authority
Negotiate, Bargain, Seek Advancement
Overcome Internal Barriers to Effectiveness
How Valuable Are Role Models?
Personal Lives
More Work and Less Work
Children
Notes
References
Author Index
Subject Index

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