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Social Cognition Making Sense of People

ISBN-10: 0262611430
ISBN-13: 9780262611435
Edition: 1999
Authors: Ziva Kunda
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Description: In this survey of research and theory about social cognition, Ziva Kunda reviews basic processes in social cognition, including the representation of social concepts, rules of inference, memory, hot cognition and automatic processing.

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Book details

List price: $60.00
Copyright year: 1999
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 6/11/1999
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 616
Size: 7.00" wide x 8.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.134

In this survey of research and theory about social cognition, Ziva Kunda reviews basic processes in social cognition, including the representation of social concepts, rules of inference, memory, hot cognition and automatic processing.

Acknowledgments
Introduction
Background
Overview
Synopsis
Basic Processes
Basic Topics
Culture
Basic Processes
Concepts: Representing Social Knowledge
What Are Concepts?
Functions of Concepts
Classification
Inferring Additional Attributes
Guiding Attention and Interpretation
Communication
Reasoning
Activating Concepts
Stimulus Features
Salience
Priming
Chronic Accessibility
Goals
Structure of Concepts
Classical View
Critique of the Classical View
Probabilistic View
Support for the Probabilistic View
Prototypes or Exemplars?
Critique of the Probabilistic View
Concepts as Theory Based
Support for the Theory-Based View
Category Membership Overrides Similarity
Goal-Derived Categories
Expertise
Combined Concepts
Critique of the Theory-Based View
Interconcept Organization
Basic-Level Categories
Models of Representation
Associative Network Models
Parallel-Constraint-Satisfaction Models
Summary
Heuristics: Rules of Thumb for Reasoning
History of Probabilistic Reasoning
The Representativeness Heuristic
Ignoring Prior Probabilities of Outcomes (Base-Rates)
Consensus as Base-Rate
Stereotypes as Base-Rates
The Dilution Effect
Ignoring Sample Size
Misconceptions of Chance
Belief in the Hot Hand
Failure to Understand Regression
The Conjunction Fallacy
Statistical Heuristics
Factors That Influence The Choice of Heuristics
Knowledge about the Domain
Clarity of the Sample Space in the Domain
Experience with the Domain
Contextual Cues
Salience of Chance Factors
Assumptions about Communicative Intent
Predicting Single Events versus Long-Run Frequencies
Statistical Education
The Availability Heuristic
Ignoring Biases in Available Samples
Salience
Egocentric Biases
Ignoring Biases in Accessible Cognitions
One-Sided Questions
Ease or Difficulty of Recruiting Examples
Explanation
Perseverance of Refuted Beliefs
Imagination
Anchoring and Adjustment
Anchoring and Social Judgement
Can We Overcome Biases due to the Availability Heuristic and Anchoring?
Careful Thinking and Use of Heuristics
Summary
Determining What Is, What Was, and What Might Have Been: Hypothesis Testing, Covariation Detectio...
Hypothesis Testing
The Positive-Test Strategy
Hypothesis Confirmation in Evaluating Others
Biased Memory Search
Biased Evidence Seeking
Hypothesis Confirmation in Evaluating Oneself
Choosing versus Rejecting
Analyzing Reasons for Predictions
Covariation Detection
Assessing Covariations from 2 x 2 Tables
Illusory Correlations
Stereotype Formation through Illusory Correlation
Failure to Detect Actual Correlations
Accuracy in Covariation Detection
Explanation-Based Judgment
Story Models in jury Decision Making
Coherence of Explanations
Counterfactual Thinking
Event Normality
Closeness of the Counterfactual to the Actual Event
Exception versus Routine
Controllability
Action versus Inaction
Ease of Replicating Events Mentally
Functions of Counterfactual Thoughts
Summary
Memory: Reconstructing the Past
State of Mind When Encoding Events
Expectancies and Interpretation
Expectancies and Attention
Expectancy-Congruent Information
Expectancy-Incongruent Information
Goals
Event Significance
State of Mind When Retrieving Events
Expectancies and Retrieval
Theories about Stability and Change
Exaggerating the Consistency between the Past and the Present
Exaggerating the Difference between the Past and the Present
The Hindsight Bias
Goals
Mood
Mood-Congruent Memory
Mood-Dependent Memory
Source Memory
Distinguishing Reality from Imagination
Suggestion and False Memories
Monitoring External Sources
The Sleeper Effect
Summary
Hot Cognition: The Impact of Motivation and Affect on Judgment
Motivation
Directional Goals
Motivational versus Cognitive Accounts of Bias
Outcome Dependency
The Crucial Role of Arousal
Self-affirmation
Mechanism for Motivated Reasoning.
Revisiting the Motivation versus Cognition Debate
Normative Considerations
Accuracy Goals
Deliberative and Implemental Mindsets
Closure Goals
Affect
Mood-Congruent Judgment
Mood as a Source of Priming
Mood as Information
The Affect Infusion Model
Mood as a Determinant of Cognitive Strategies
Mood and Persuasion
Mood and Stereotyping
Summary
Automatic Processes: Judgment and Behavior without Awareness, Intention, Control, or Effort
Automatic versus Controlled Processes
Lack of Awareness
Failure of Introspection
Implicit Memory
Pitting Conscious Processes against Unconscious Ones
Becoming Famous over Night
Subliminal Perception
Mere Exposure
Individual Differences in Automatic Reactions
Efficiency
Scarce Time
Automatic Activation of Affect
Scarce Resources
Automatic and Controlled Processes in Attribution
Ironic Processes in Thought Control
Forming Automatic Reactions
Summary
Basic Topics
Stereotypes
What Are Stereotypes?
The Perceiver's Perspective
Stereotype Activation
Stereotypes Can Be Activated Automatically
Individual Differences in Automatic Stereotype Activation
Stereotype Activation Can Require Effort
Stereotype Activation Can Be Inhibited
Suppressed Stereotypes May Rebound
Stereotype Application
Stereotypes Color the Meaning of Information about a Person
Differing Interpretations
Shifting Standards
Using Stereotypes in the Presence of Individuating Information
Ambiguous versus Unambiguous Information
Trait Judgments versus Behavioral Predictions
Mental Capacity and Stereotype Application
Motivated Application and Inhibition of Stereotypes
Serial versus Parallel Processing of Stereotypes and Individuating Information
The Target's Perspective
Attributional Ambiguity
Stereotype Threat
Stereotype Maintenance and Change
The Contact Hypothesis
Subtyping Counterstereotypic Individuals
Summary
Knowledge about Others' Attitudes, Behavior, and Personality
Knowledge about the Prevalence and Distribution of Attributes in the Population
False Consensus
Pluralistic Ignorance
False Consensus versus Pluralistic Ignorance
Knowledge of Social Distributions
Knowledge About the Consistency of Traits
The Actual Consistency of Traits
Cross-situational Consistency Is Low
The Power of Aggregation
Accuracy from Thin Slices of Behavior
Beliefs about the Consistency of Traits
The Fundamental Attribution Error
Beliefs about Cross-situational Consistency of Behavior
Spontaneous Trait Inference
How Could We Be So Wrong?
Redefining Traits
Summary
The Self
Dimensions of Self-knowledge
Self-schemas
Processing Information about the Self
Processing Information about Others
The Working Self-concept
Self-esteem
Self-esteem and the Representation of Self-knowledge
Self-esteem and Self-serving Strategies
Organization of Self-knowledge
Self-complexity
Self-guides
Self-discrepancies and Emotional Vulnerability
Self-discrepancies and Interpersonal Thought and Tactics
Which Self-knowledge Do We Seek?
Self-enhancement
Self-verification
The Self in Relation to Others
Using the Self to Judge Others
Using Others to Judge the Self
The Self-evaluation Maintenance Model
The Impact of Role Models on the Self
Self-regulation
Self-regulation Is Adaptive
Self-regulation Is Effortful
Summary
A Cross-Cultural Perspective
Culture
East-West Differences
Independent and Interdependent Construals of the Self
The Independent Self
The Interdependent Self
The Structure and Contents of Self-Knowledge
Relative Richness of Self-representation
Global versus Contextualized Self-descriptions
Dispositional versus Situational Attributions
Choice and Dissonance
Self-enhancement versus Self-criticism
North-South Differences in the United State
Culture of Honor
Implications for Social Cognition
Summary
References
Author Index
Subject Index

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