Beginning to Read Thinking and Learning about Print

ISBN-10: 0262510766

ISBN-13: 9780262510769

Edition: 1994

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Description: Beginning to Read reconciles the debate that has divided theorists for decades over the "right" way to help children learn to read. Drawing on a rich array of research on the nature and development of reading proficiency, Adams shows educators that they need not remain trapped in the phonics versus teaching-for-meaning dilemma. She proposes that phonics can work together with the whole language approach to teaching reading and provides an integrated treatment of the knowledge and process involved in skillful reading, the issues surrounding their acquisition, and the implications for reading instruction. A Bradford Book

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Book details

List price: $36.00
Copyright year: 1994
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 2/3/1994
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 504
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.782
Language: English

Marilyn Jager Adams, Ph.D., a visiting scholar at the Harvard University Graduate School of Education, received her Ph.D. in cognitive and developmental psychology from Brown University in 1975 and has been working on issues of education and cognition ever since. In 1995, she was presented with the American Educational Research Association#39;s (AERA) Sylvia Scribner Award for Outstanding Contribution to Education through Research. In addition to a number of chapter and journal articles, Dr. Adams is the author of the landmark synthesis of research on reading and its acquisition, Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print (MIT Press, 1990). She is also the principal author of several classroom resources, including the kindergarten and primary levels of Collections for Young Scholars (SRA/McGraw-Hill, 1995) and Odyssey: A Curriculum for Thinking (Charlesbridge, 1986), and experimentally validated program on thinking skills that was originally developed for Venezuelan barrio students. Dr. Adams was Vice President (1995-1997) of AERA and a member of the Study Committee for the National Academy of Sciences#39; Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, the College Boards#39; Advisory Committee for Research and Development, and the planning committee for the 1992 National Assessment of Educational Progress in Reading. She is a member of the national advisory boards for the Consortium on Reading Excellence (CORE), the Orton/International Dyslexia Society, the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, and the Neuhaus Education Center. She is on the Literacy Advisory Board for Sesame Street and for Between the Lions, a forthcoming television show for 4- to 7-year olds, and has also worked on early literacy products with a number of educational software groups including Apt Productions, Breakthrough, Cast, Disney Interactive, Microsoft, Sunburst/Software for Success, 7th Level, and The Waterford Institute.

Forward: How I Came to Know About Beginning to Read
Introduction
Putting Word Recognition in Perspective
Operation of the Reading System
Acquisition of the Reading System
Organization of the Book
Reading Words and Meaning: From an Age-Old Problem to a Contemporary Crisis
The Purposes versus the Methods of Writing
From Pictures to Logograms
From Logograms to Syllabaries
The Alphabet
Reading Instruction in the United States
From Colonial Times
The Evolution of Meaning-First Curricula
An Angry Protest
The Aftermath
Toward the Future
Why Phonics?
Program Comparisons (And, by the Way, What Is Phonics?)
Jeanne Chall and The Great Debate
The Setting
The Proposal
From the Authorities
From the Texts
From the Classrooms
From the Research
The Message
Other Program Comparisons
The USOE Cooperative Research Program
Follow Through
A Quantitative Synthesis
Summary of the Program Comparisons
Exactly What Is Good about Phonic Instruction?
How Much Is the Right Amount?
What Do Phonic Programs Teach?
Where Does This Leave Us?
One More Possibility
Research on Prereaders
What About Mental Age?
What about Perceptual Skills?
Knowing Letters
Phonemic Awareness
Why Is Phonemic Awareness a Problem?
Phonemic Segmentation Tasks
Phoneme Manipulation Tasks
Syllable-Splitting Tasks
Blending Tasks
Oddity Tasks
Knowledge of Nursery Rhymes
Summary: Phonemic Awareness
Where Do Prereading Skills Come From? Early Experience with Print
What Needs to Be Taught? Hints from Skilled Readers
Outside-In Models of Reading: What Skilled Readers Look Like They Do
Word Shape Cues
Sophisticated Guessing
Comprehension as Hypothesis-Testing
Semantic Preprocessing
Sounding Words Out
Summary
Analyzing the Reading Process: Orthographic Processing
Skilled Readers Look at the Letters and See Letter Patterns
The Importance of Automatic Letter Recognition
What Else Do the Letter Associations Do for Us?
Processing Letter Order
Breaking Words into Syllables
Syllabic Cues from Consonants
Syllabic Cues from Vowels
All Together: Consonants, Vowels, and Spelling Patterns
Seeing Syllables
Learning about Likely and Unlikely Letter Sequences
Summary and Instructional Implications
Analyzing the Reading Process: Use and Uses of Meaning
The Relationship between Meaning and Orthography
The Context Processor
Contextual Facilitation and Word Recognition
Contextual Facilitation and Comprehension
The Meaning Processor
Acquiring Concepts
Acquiring the Meanings of New Words
Strategic Use of Context Should Be Taught
Vocabulary Instruction
Importance of Learning New Words from Context
Meaningfulness and Orthographic Knowledge
Knowledge about Prefixes, Suffixes, and Word Stems
Instructional Implications
Adding the Phonological Processor: How the Whole System Works Together
The Nature of the Phonological Processor
The Importance of Phonological Processing in Reading
Interactions among All Three Processors: The Alphabetic Backup System
Orthographic Processing
Vulnerabilities of the Orthographic Processor
Compensating for Orthographic Difficulties
Phonological Processing
Vulnerabilities of the Phonological Processor
Compensating for Phonological Difficulties
Processing Meaning
Vulnerabilities of the Meaning Processor
Remediating the Meaning Processor's Weaknesses
Summary: Interactions between Processors
Supporting the Reader's Running Memory for Text
Summary: The Importance of Phonological Processing
Thinking, Learning, and Reading
The Nature of Learning (Words or Otherwise)
The Structure of Knowledge
Comparisons of Connectionist Theories with Others
The Relation of Knowledge to Thought and Understanding
The Relevance to Word Recognition
Encoding the Parts versus the Associations between Them
What Are the "Parts" (and the "Parts" of the "Parts")?
What About Rules?
On the Goals of Print Instruction: What Do We Want Students to Learn?
The Importance of Phonological Processing in Learning to Read
Independence and "Self-Teaching"
Remembering the Order and Identities of Letters
Building Orthographic Associations through Oral Communication
Spelling-Sound versus Spelling-Meaning Relationships
The Importance of Automatic Word Recognition
Learning to Attend to Spellings and Meanings
Learning How to Read
On Teaching Phonics First
Teaching Individual Letter-Sound Correspondences
The Right Amount of Practice
How Many Pairs Must Be Learned?
Which Correspondences Should Be Taught?
The Teaching of Individual Grapheme-Phoneme Correspondences
Establish the Alphabetic Principle
Phonemic Accessibility
Referential Clarity
Graphemes with Multiple Sounds
Summary: Teaching Individual Letter-Sound Relationships
Phonic Generalizations
Evaluating Phonic Generalizations
Pronunciation of Consonants
Accentuation of Syllables
Division of Syllables
Pronunciation of Vowels
Summary: Phonic Generalizations
Reading Connected Text
Summary: Phonics and Connected Reading
Phonological Prerequisites: Becoming Aware of Spoken Words, Syllables, and Phonemes
Levels of Linguistic Awareness
Becoming Aware of Spoken Words
Becoming Aware of Spoken Syllables
Becoming Aware of Phonemes
Between Syllables and Phonemes: Onsets and Rimes
Psychology versus Acoustics
What Are Onsets and Rimes?
Evidence for the Psychological Reality of Onsets and Rimes
Sensitivity to Onsets and Rimes: Nature versus Experience
Naturalistic Evidence for Onsets and Rimes
The Instructional Prospects of Onsets and Rimes
The Visual Salience of Onsets and Rimes
The Utility of Rimes in the Development of Vowel Generalizations
Other Instructional Considerations
Putting It All Together
Learning about Print: The First Steps
Becoming Aware of the Nature of Print
From the Child's Vantage Point
From Our Vantage Point
Summary: Print Awareness
Becoming Aware of Words in Print
Becoming Aware that Printed Words Consist of Letters
Learning the Visual Identities of the Individual Letters
What's Hard about Learning Letter Identities?
Encoding the Characters
How Are Letter Identities Taught in School?
Teaching Visual Recognition with the Help of Letter Names
Teaching Letters through Sounds Instead
Learning Letters through Writing, Copying, and Tracing
Uppercase and Lowercase Letters
How Are Letter Identities Most Often Learned?
Summary: Learning Letters
The Value of Pictures
Pictures as Aids for Word Recognition
Pictures as Support for Comprehension and Interest
Fostering Awareness of Print
Sharing Books with Children
Language Experience Activities
Summary: Print Preliminaries
To Reading from Writing
Early Spelling and Phonemic Awareness
Teaching Phonetic Spellings to Children
Letting Children Invent Spellings
Pedagogical Issues
Learning How to Spell Correctly
The Relation between Reading and Spelling Skills
Directing Students' Attention to Spellings
The Influence of Spelling on the Perception of Phonology and Meaning
Summary: Learning How to Spell Correctly
Beyond Spelling
Summary and Conclusion
The Proper Place of Phonics
The System in Review
Phonics and Reading Instruction
Afterword
References
Name Index
Subject Index
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