Factory Physics

ISBN-10: 0256247951
ISBN-13: 9780256247954
Edition: 2nd 2000 (Revised)
List price: $149.69
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Book details

List price: $149.69
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date: 4/4/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 720
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.234
Language: English

Factory Physics?p. 1
The Short Answerp. 1
The Long Answerp. 1
Focus: Manufacturing Managementp. 1
Scope: Operationsp. 3
Method: Factory Physicsp. 6
Perspective: Flow Linesp. 8
An Overview of the Bookp. 10
The Lessons of History
Manufacturing in Americap. 14
Introductionp. 14
The American Experiencep. 15
The First Industrial Revolutionp. 17
The Industrial Revolution in Americap. 18
The American System of Manufacturingp. 19
The Second Industrial Revolutionp. 20
The Role of the Railroadsp. 21
Mass Retailersp. 22
Andrew Carnegie and Scalep. 23
Henry Ford and Speedp. 24
Scientific Managementp. 25
Frederick W. Taylorp. 27
Planning versus Doingp. 29
Other Pioneers of Scientific Managementp. 31
The Science of Scientific Managementp. 32
The Rise of the Modern Manufacturing Organizationp. 32
Du Pont, Sloan, and Structurep. 33
Hawthorne and the Human Elementp. 34
Management Educationp. 36
Peak, Decline, and Resurgence of American Manufacturingp. 37
The Golden Erap. 37
Accountants Count and Salesmen Sellp. 38
The Professional Managerp. 40
Recovery and Globalization of Manufacturingp. 42
The Futurep. 43
Discussion Pointsp. 45
Study Questionsp. 46
Inventory Control: From EOQ to ROPp. 48
Introductionp. 48
The Economic Order Quantity Modelp. 49
Motivationp. 49
The Modelp. 49
The Key Insight of EOQp. 52
Sensitivityp. 54
EOQ Extensionsp. 56
Dynamic Lot Sizingp. 56
Motivationp. 57
Problem Formulationp. 57
The Wagner-Whitin Procedurep. 59
Interpreting the Solutionp. 62
Caveatsp. 63
Statistical Inventory Modelsp. 64
The News Vendor Modelp. 65
The Base Stock Modelp. 69
The (Q, r) Modelp. 75
Conclusionsp. 88
Basic Probabilityp. 89
Inventory Formulasp. 100
Study Questionsp. 103
Problemsp. 104
The MRP Crusadep. 109
Material Requirements Planning--MRPp. 109
The Key Insight of MRPp. 109
Overview of MRPp. 110
MRP Inputs and Outputsp. 114
The MRP Procedurep. 116
Special Topics in MRPp. 122
Lot Sizing in MRPp. 124
Safety Stock and Safety Lead Timesp. 128
Accommodating Yield Lossesp. 130
Problems in MRPp. 131
Manufacturing Resources Planning--MRP IIp. 135
The MRP II Hierarchyp. 136
Long-Range Planningp. 136
Intermediate Planningp. 137
Short-Term Controlp. 141
Beyond MRP II--Enterprise Resources Planningp. 143
History and Success of ERPp. 143
An Example: SAP R/3p. 144
Manufacturing Execution Systemsp. 145
Advanced Planning Systemsp. 145
Conclusionsp. 145
Study Questionsp. 146
Problemsp. 147
The JIT Revolutionp. 151
The Origins of JITp. 151
JIT Goalsp. 153
The Environment as a Controlp. 154
Implementing JITp. 155
Production Smoothingp. 156
Capacity Buffersp. 157
Setup Reductionp. 158
Cross-Training and Plant Layoutp. 159
Total Quality Managementp. 160
Kanbanp. 162
The Lessons of JITp. 165
Discussion Pointp. 166
Study Questionsp. 166
What Went Wrongp. 168
Introductionp. 168
Trouble with Scientific Managementp. 169
Trouble with MRPp. 173
Trouble with JITp. 176
Where from Here?p. 181
Discussion Pointsp. 183
Study Questionsp. 183
Factory Physics
A Science of Manufacturingp. 186
The Seeds of Sciencep. 186
Why Science?p. 187
Defining a Manufacturing Systemp. 190
Prescriptive and Descriptive Modelsp. 190
Objectives, Measures, and Controlsp. 192
The Systems Approachp. 192
The Fundamental Objectivep. 195
Hierarchical Objectivesp. 195
Control and Information Systemsp. 197
Models and Performance Measuresp. 198
The Danger of Simple Modelsp. 198
Building Better Prescriptive Modelsp. 199
Accounting Modelsp. 200
Tactical and Strategic Modelingp. 204
Considering Riskp. 205
Conclusionsp. 208
Activity-Based Costingp. 208
Study Questionsp. 209
Problemsp. 210
Basic Factory Dynamicsp. 213
Introductionp. 213
Definitions and Parametersp. 215
Definitionsp. 215
Parametersp. 218
Examplesp. 219
Simple Relationshipsp. 221
Best-Case Performancep. 221
Worst-Case Performancep. 226
Practical Worst-Case Performancep. 229
Bottleneck Rates and Cycle Timep. 233
Internal Benchmarkingp. 235
Labor-Constrained Systemsp. 238
Ample Capacity Casep. 238
Full Flexibility Casep. 239
CONWIP Lines with Flexible Laborp. 240
Conclusionsp. 242
Study Questionsp. 243
Problemsp. 244
Intuition-Building Exercisesp. 246
Variability Basicsp. 248
Introductionp. 248
Variability and Randomnessp. 249
The Roots of Randomnessp. 249
Probabilistic Intuitionp. 250
Process Time Variabilityp. 251
Measures and Classes of Variabilityp. 252
Low and Moderate Variabilityp. 252
Highly Variable Process Timesp. 254
Causes of Variabilityp. 255
Natural Variabilityp. 255
Variability from Preemptive Outages (Breakdowns)p. 255
Variability from Nonpreemptive Outagesp. 258
Variability from Recyclep. 260
Summary of Variability Formulasp. 260
Flow Variabilityp. 261
Characterizing Variability in Flowsp. 261
Batch Arrivals and Departuresp. 264
Variability Interactions--Queueingp. 264
Queueing Notation and Measuresp. 265
Fundamental Relationsp. 266
The M/M/1 Queuep. 267
Performance Measuresp. 269
Systems with General Process and Interarrival Timesp. 270
Parallel Machinesp. 271
Parallel Machines and General Timesp. 273
Effects of Blockingp. 273
The M/M/1/b Queuep. 273
General Blocking Modelsp. 277
Variability Poolingp. 279
Batch Processingp. 280
Safety Stock Aggregationp. 280
Queue Sharingp. 281
Conclusionsp. 282
Study Questionsp. 283
Problemsp. 283
The Corrupting Influence of Variabilityp. 287
Introductionp. 287
Can Variability Be Good?p. 287
Examples of Good and Bad Variabilityp. 288
Performance and Variabilityp. 289
Measures of Manufacturing Performancep. 289
Variability Lawsp. 294
Buffering Examplesp. 295
Pay Me Now or Pay Me Laterp. 297
Flexibilityp. 300
Organizational Learningp. 300
Flow Lawsp. 301
Product Flowsp. 301
Capacityp. 301
Utilizationp. 303
Variability and Flowp. 304
Batching Lawsp. 305
Types of Batchesp. 305
Process Batchingp. 306
Move Batchingp. 311
Cycle Timep. 314
Cycle Time at a Single Stationp. 315
Assembly Operationsp. 315
Line Cycle Timep. 316
Cycle Time, Lead Time, and Servicep. 321
Diagnostics and Improvementp. 324
Increasing Throughputp. 324
Reducing Cycle Timep. 327
Improving Customer Servicep. 330
Conclusionsp. 331
Study Questionsp. 333
Intuition-Building Exercisesp. 333
Problemsp. 335
Push and Pull Production Systemsp. 339
Introductionp. 339
Definitionsp. 339
The Key Difference between Push and Pullp. 340
The Push-Pull Interfacep. 341
The Magic of Pullp. 344
Reducing Manufacturing Costsp. 345
Reducing Variabilityp. 346
Improving Qualityp. 347
Maintaining Flexibilityp. 348
Facilitating Work Aheadp. 349
CONWIPp. 349
Basic Mechanicsp. 349
Mean-Value Analysis Modelp. 350
Comparisons of CONWIP with MRPp. 354
Observabilityp. 355
Efficiencyp. 355
Variabilityp. 356
Robustnessp. 357
Comparisons of CONWIP with Kanbanp. 359
Card Count Issuesp. 359
Product Mix Issuesp. 360
People Issuesp. 361
Conclusionsp. 362
Study Questionsp. 363
Problemsp. 363
The Human Element in Operations Managementp. 365
Introductionp. 365
Basic Human Lawsp. 366
The Foundation of Self-interestp. 366
The Fact of Diversityp. 368
The Power of Zealotryp. 371
The Reality of Burnoutp. 373
Planning versus Motivatingp. 374
Responsibility and Authorityp. 375
Summaryp. 377
Discussion Pointsp. 378
Study Questionsp. 379
Total Quality Manufacturingp. 380
Introductionp. 380
The Decade of Qualityp. 380
A Quality Anecdotep. 381
The Status of Qualityp. 382
Views of Qualityp. 383
General Definitionsp. 383
Internal versus External Qualityp. 383
Statistical Quality Controlp. 385
SQC Approachesp. 385
Statistical Process Controlp. 385
SPC Extensionsp. 388
Quality and Operationsp. 389
Quality Supports Operationsp. 390
Operations Supports Qualityp. 396
Quality and the Supply Chainp. 398
A Safety Lead Time Examplep. 399
Purchased Parts in an Assembly Systemp. 399
Vendor Selection and Managementp. 401
Conclusionsp. 402
Study Questionsp. 402
Problemsp. 403
Principles in Practice
A Pull Planning Frameworkp. 408
Introductionp. 408
Disaggregationp. 409
Time Scales in Production Planningp. 409
Other Dimensions of Disaggregationp. 411
Coordinationp. 413
Forecastingp. 414
Causal Forecastingp. 415
Time Series Forecastingp. 418
The Art of Forecastingp. 429
Planning for Pullp. 430
Hierarchical Production Planningp. 432
Capacity/Facility Planningp. 434
Workforce Planningp. 436
Aggregate Planningp. 438
WIP and Quota Settingp. 439
Demand Managementp. 441
Sequencing and Schedulingp. 442
Shop Floor Controlp. 443
Real-Time Simulationp. 443
Production Trackingp. 444
Conclusionsp. 444
A Quota-Setting Modelp. 445
Study Questionsp. 447
Problemsp. 448
Shop Floor Controlp. 453
Introductionp. 453
General Considerationsp. 456
Gross Capacity Controlp. 456
Bottleneck Planningp. 458
Span of Controlp. 460
CONWIP Configurationsp. 461
Basic CONWIPp. 461
Tandem CONWIP Linesp. 464
Shared Resourcesp. 465
Multiple-Product Familiesp. 467
CONWIP Assembly Linesp. 468
Other Pull Mechanismsp. 469
Kanbanp. 470
Pull-from-the-Bottleneck Methodsp. 471
Shop Floor Control and Schedulingp. 474
Production Trackingp. 475
Statistical Throughput Controlp. 475
Long-Range Capacity Trackingp. 478
Conclusionsp. 482
Statistical Throughput Controlp. 483
Study Questionsp. 484
Problemsp. 485
Production Schedulingp. 488
Goals of Production Schedulingp. 488
Meeting Due Datesp. 488
Maximizing Utilizationp. 489
Reducing WIP and Cycle Timesp. 490
Review of Scheduling Researchp. 491
MRP, MRP II, and ERPp. 491
Classic Schedulingp. 491
Dispatchingp. 493
Why Scheduling Is Hardp. 493
Good News and Bad Newsp. 497
Practical Finite-Capacity Schedulingp. 498
Linking Planning and Schedulingp. 501
Optimal Batchingp. 502
Due Date Quotingp. 510
Bottleneck Schedulingp. 513
CONWIP Lines Without Setupsp. 513
Single CONWIP Lines with Setupsp. 514
Bottleneck Scheduling Resultsp. 518
Diagnostic Schedulingp. 518
Types of Schedule Infeasibilityp. 519
Capacitated Material Requirements Planning--MRP-Cp. 522
Extending MRP-C to More General Environmentsp. 528
Practical Issuesp. 528
Production Scheduling in a Pull Environmentp. 529
Schedule Planning, Pull Executionp. 529
Using CONWIP with MRPp. 530
Conclusionsp. 530
Study Questionsp. 531
Problemsp. 531
Aggregate and Workforce Planningp. 535
Introductionp. 535
Basic Aggregate Planningp. 536
A Simple Modelp. 536
An LP Examplep. 538
Product Mix Planningp. 546
Basic Modelp. 546
A Simple Examplep. 548
Extensions to the Basic Modelp. 552
Workforce Planningp. 557
An LP Modelp. 557
A Combined AP/WP Examplep. 559
Modeling Insightsp. 568
Conclusionsp. 568
Linear Programmingp. 569
Study Questionsp. 575
Problemsp. 575
Supply Chain Managementp. 582
Introductionp. 582
Reasons for Holding Inventoryp. 583
Raw Materialsp. 583
Work in Processp. 583
Finished Goods Inventoryp. 585
Spare Partsp. 586
Managing Raw Materialsp. 586
Visibility Improvementsp. 587
ABC Classificationp. 587
Just-in-Timep. 588
Setting Safety Stock/Lead Times for Purchased Componentsp. 589
Setting Order Frequencies for Purchased Componentsp. 589
Managing WIPp. 595
Reducing Queueingp. 596
Reducing Wait-for-Batch WIPp. 597
Reducing Wait-to-Match WIPp. 599
Managing FGIp. 600
Managing Spare Partsp. 601
Stratifying Demandp. 602
Stocking Spare Parts for Emergency Repairsp. 602
Multiechelon Supply Chainsp. 610
System Configurationsp. 610
Performance Measuresp. 612
The Bullwhip Effectp. 612
An Approximation for a Two-Level Systemp. 616
Conclusionsp. 621
Discussion Pointp. 622
Study Questionsp. 623
Problemsp. 623
Capacity Managementp. 626
The Capacity-Setting Problemp. 626
Short-Term and Long-Term Capacity Settingp. 626
Strategic Capacity Planningp. 627
Traditional and Modern Views of Capacity Managementp. 629
Modeling and Analysisp. 631
Example: A Minimum Cost, Capacity-Feasible Linep. 633
Forcing Cycle Time Compliancep. 634
Modifying Existing Production Linesp. 636
Designing New Production Linesp. 637
The Traditional Approachp. 637
A Factory Physics Approachp. 638
Other Facility Design Considerationsp. 639
Capacity Allocation and Line Balancingp. 639
Paced Assembly Linesp. 640
Unbalancing Flow Linesp. 640
Conclusionsp. 641
The Line-of-Balance Problemp. 642
Study Questionsp. 645
Problemsp. 645
Synthesis-Pulling It All Togetherp. 647
The Strategic Importance of Detailsp. 647
The Practical Matter of Implementationp. 648
A Systems Perspectivep. 648
Initiating Changep. 649
Focusing Teamworkp. 650
Pareto's Lawp. 651
Factory Physics Lawsp. 651
A Factory Physics Parablep. 654
Hitting the Trailp. 654
The Challengep. 657
The Lay of the Landp. 657
Teamwork to the Rescuep. 660
How the Plant Was Wonp. 666
Epiloguep. 668
The Futurep. 668
Referencesp. 672
Indexp. 683
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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