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Lighting for TV and Film

ISBN-10: 024051582X
ISBN-13: 9780240515823
Edition: 3rd 1999 (Revised)
Authors: Gerald Millerson
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Description: Advice and guidance in achieving successful and skilful lighting is provided in this book. It covers the fundamental principles of lighting in studios, on location and display using single-camera, small unit production and improvised lighting.

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Book details

List price: $85.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 1999
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Publication date: 6/16/1999
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 448
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 0.858
Language: English

Advice and guidance in achieving successful and skilful lighting is provided in this book. It covers the fundamental principles of lighting in studios, on location and display using single-camera, small unit production and improvised lighting.

Preface to the Third Edition
Acknowledgements
An introduction
Why bother?
Why do we need lighting techniques?
What can lighting do?
What is bad lighting?
Learning to light
The nature of light
What is light?
White light
Light and shade
Light intensity
Surface brightness
Gray scale (achromatic values)
Tonal contrast and tonal gradation
Contrast range/subject brightness range
Tonal range and pictorial effect
Tonal values and picture impact
Detail
Color
Assessing color
Color mixtures
Color effect
Color specification
Tristimulus primaries
CIE chromaticity diagram
White light and color balance
Color filters
Polarization
The eye and perception
The eye and the camera
The camera always lies!
The effect of the frame
The critical eye
The eye
Brightness adaptation
Color adaptation
Constancy phenomena
Color assessment
Color and depth
Color and detail
Color and distance
Color attraction
Color harmony
Color memory
Color associations
The principles of lighting
Perception and selection
The way ahead
Light quality
Hard light
Texture
Soft light
Light direction
The lighting angle is important
Classifying direction
From the camera's viewpoint
Frontal lighting
Angling the lamp
Side light and edge lighting
Back light
Lamp height
Basic lighting principles
Lighting a flat surface
Three-point lighting
The key light
Fill light (filler)
Diffuse lighting
Back light
Lighting balance
Summarizing
Shadows
Shadow density
Lighting opportunities
What is the aim?
Assessing the subject
Directing attention
Lighting and composition
Visual continuity
Technical limitations
Lamp functions
Distorting reality
Lighting common materials
Lighting people
'Bad' lighting
Styles of portraiture
The 'ideal' portrait
Lighting faces
Begin by lighting yourself
Lighting zones
Classifying light directions
The basic effects of lamp positions
Fill light in portraiture
Back light
The realities of portraiture
Portraiture dynamics
Types of portraiture
Corrective lighting
Pitfalls in portrait lighting
General maxims
Lighting groups
Two people
Three people
Panel group
Large groups
Lighting action
The problem of movement
The production process
The hybrid arts
Shooting conditions
Basic film mechanics
The Lighting Cameraman
Preliminary planning
Lighting methods
Shooting methods
Retakes
Discontinuous shooting
Checking results
Continuity problems
Restrictions and opportunities
Basic television mechanics
The background of television production
The Lighting Director
Production planning
What is going to happen?
The realities of planning
Planning approaches
Regular planning
Production planning meeting
Lighting preliminaries
Pre-rehearsal/outside rehearsal
Check out the facilities
Cogitation!
Lighting approaches
Systematic lighting
The 'look and light' method
The 'plot and light' method
Drawing the lighting plot
Lighting people
Lighting the setting
Summing up
Rigging the lighting fixtures
Setting lighting fixtures
Methods of adjustment
Building up the lighting treatment
Setting the lamps
Checking lamp coverage
Checking the lighting treatment
Lighting measurements
Working conditions
Working problems
Camera rehearsal
The nature of camera rehearsal
Rehearsal methods
Lighting the rehearsal
Teamwork
The lighting control board
The dynamics of rehearsal
Lighting balance
Lighting quandaries
Lighting on location
Natural light
Exterior shooting
Night exteriors
Location interiors
Public events
Insufficient light
Equipment
Installations
Frugal lighting
Shooting without lights - in lit surroundings
Camera lights
Hand-held lamps
Single stand lamp
Using two lamps
Using three lamps
Lighting density
Atmospheric lighting
The intangibility of lighting
The gulf between
Lighting styles
Pictorial style
Pictorial effect
Tonal distribution
Pictorial quality
Pictorial treatment
'Natural' lighting
Influential lighting
Shadows
Atmospheric treatment
Darkness
Moonlight
Dawn and sunset
Sunlight
Multi-directional lighting
Changing light in interiors
Lighting changes
Atmospheric changes
Decorative lighting
Animated lighting
Light sources
A variety of luminants
Regular tungsten lamps
Overrun lamps
Internal reflector lamps
Tungsten-halogen lamps/quartz lights/quartz-iodine lamps
Carbon arcs
Metal halide lighting
Fluorescent lamps
Lighting equipment
Assessing equipment
Basic reflector design
Basic lens design
Light fixtures/luminaires
Adjusting fixtures
Soft-light sources
Open-fronted soft-light fixtures
Hard-light sources
Internal reflector fixtures
Lensless spotlight
Fresnel spotlight
Dual-purpose fixtures
Special-purpose spotlights
Reflector units
Reflective materials
Limitations
Supporting the reflector
Reflector board surfaces
The camera-light
Forms of camera-light
Flexibility
Limitations
Lamp supports
Floor lamps (ground lamps)
Lighting stands
Boom light
Auxiliary supports
Support pole
Suspension systems
Basic supports
Lighting accessories
Accessory supports
Diffusers
Light control
Basic light control
Why do we need light control?
Control requirements
Dimmers
Power supplies
Cabling on location
Cabling in the studio
Patching systems
Lighting control systems
The patching sheet
The cue sheet
Color temperature
Identifying color
Principles
Light sources
System standards
Consistent color temperature
Measuring color temperature
Mired units
Mixed color temperatures
Filters
Filter media
Dichroic filters
Filter applications
Diffusers
Using filters
Filters in practice
Colored light
Picture control
Tonal limits
Tonal response
Tonal contrasts
Lens control
The lens aperture
The importance of depth of field
Selecting the depth of field
Exposure
What is exposure?
Adjusting exposure
Auto-iris
Consistent exposure
Measuring correct exposure
Calculated light levels
Light levels
Sensitivity
Picture contol in film
From negative to print
Film in television
Picture control in television
The television system
Assessing exposure visually
Video control
Approaches to video control
Video control adjustments
Video control techniques
Corrective control
Color and picture control
Scenery
The role of scenery
The role of lighting
Basic scenic units
Practicality
Set features
Structure
Camera viewpoints
Walls
Flat heights
Windows
Backings
The cyclorama
Scrim/scenic gauze
Studio floors
Foliage
Practical lamps
Visual effects
Light effects
Firelight
Shafts of light
Passing lights
Swinging boomlight
Strobe lights
Lasers
Car headlights
Practical lamps
Lightning
Projected patterns
Flashing signs
Image distortion
Water ripple
Rain, mist. fog, smoke
Photographic backgrounds
Photographic backdrop
Rear projection/back projection
Front projection
Reflex projection
Electronic picture insertion
Keyed insertion
External key/chroma key
Traveling matte in film
Scrims/scenic gauzes
Semi-silvered mirrors
Pepper's ghost
Follow spot
Moving light sources
Safety!
Load
Fuses
Live equipment
Phases
Grounding/earthing
Connections
Hot surfaces
Heavy weights
Cables
Safety bonds
Step-ladders/lighting ladders
Scenery
Lighting stands
Handling lamps
Protective mesh
Water
Lamp inspection
Appendix
Conversion table (footcandles and lux)
Typical light intensities
Standard light units
Conversion table (linear units)
Neutral-density filters
Formulae
Power consumption
Cables and power connections
Further reading
Index

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