If a, Then B How the World Discovered Logic

ISBN-10: 0231161050

ISBN-13: 9780231161053

Edition: 2013

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Description: While logical principles seem timeless, placeless, and eternal, their discovery is a story of personal accidents, political tragedies, and broad social change. If A, Then B begins with logic's emergence twenty-three centuries ago and tracks its expansion as a discipline ever since. It explores where our sense of logic comes from and what it really is a sense of. It also explains what drove human beings to start studying logic in the first place.Logic is more than the work of logicians alone. Its discoveries have survived only because logicians have also been able to find a willing audience, and audiences are a consequence of social forces affecting large numbers of people, quite apart from individual will. This study therefore treats politics, economics, technology, and geography as fundamental factors in generating an audience for logic -- grounding the discipline's abstract principles in a compelling material narrative. The authors explain the turbulent times of the enigmatic Aristotle, the ancient Stoic Chrysippus, the medieval theologian Peter Abelard, and the modern thinkers René Descartes, David Hume, Jeremy Bentham, George Boole, Augustus De Morgan, John Stuart Mill, Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, and Alan Turing. Examining a variety of mysteries, such as why so many branches of logic (syllogistic, Stoic, inductive, and symbolic) have arisen only in particular places and periods, If A, Then B is the first book to situate the history of logic within the movements of a larger social world.

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Book details

List price: $32.00
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Publication date: 6/25/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 352
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.276
Language: English

Preface
Introduction: What is Logic?
The Strange Nature of Logical Validity
What Makes a Valid Argument Valid?
The Divine-Command Theory of Logic
Logic as Culturally Invariant
Logic as Timeless and Placeless
The Social History of Logic
The Dawn of Logic
The Effect of Geography on the Flow of Ideas
The Effect of the Sea Trade
Transportation and Civilization
Classical Greece as the Extreme Case
The Athenian Assembly
Aristotle: Greatest of the Greek Logicians
The Study of Argument in India
The Singularity of Aristotle
The Effect of the Athenian Assembly
The Sophists
The Separation of Logic from Rhetoric
Aristotle's System: The Logic of Classification
Manipulating Classes
The Square of Opposition
The Underlying Mystery of the Square
Wittgenstein's Proposed Solution
Wittgenstein's Mistake
Chrysippus and the Stoics: A World of Interlocking Structures
The Stoics
The Logic of Choice
The Nature of Compound Propositions
Interlocking Forms of Argument
The Laws of Contradiction and Excluded Middle
More Interlocking Forms
The Basis of Computer Logic
Logic Versus Anti Logic: The Laws of Contradiction and Excluded Middle
Paradoxes of Truth
The Nature of Fuzzy Logic
Is Validity Relative?
Does Formal Logic Ultimately Depend on Common Sense?
Logical Fanatics, Circular Reasoning, and Descartes's Fundamental Principle
The Origins of the Wars of Religion
The Importance of Firm Foundations
The Logical Complexity of Our Premises
The Origins of Formalized Logic and Mathematics
The Paradoxes of Formalization
The Double Meaning of "Foundations"
The Outlook of Thomas Kuhn
Kuhn's Error
Competition Between Scientific Theories
Will the Future Resemble the Past? Inductive Logic and Scientific Method
The Challenge of the New Literature
The Triumph of the Vernacular and the Growing Spirit of Equality
The Rise of Modern Political Theory
The Right of Dissent and the Reliance on Induction
Induction as the New Rationality
Aristotle's Influence on the Medievals
The Rational Foundations of Induction
The Apparent Irreducibility of Induction
The Assumptions of Empirical Science
Rhetorical Frauds and Sophistical Ploys: Ten Classic Tricks
The Battle for Parliamentary Reform
Jeremy Bentham and the Legacy of the Enlightenment
Bentham�s Book of Fallacies
Symbolic Logic and the Digital Future
The Impact of the Industrial Revolution
The Origins of Symbolic Logic
The Logic of Relations
The Effect of the New Mathematics
The Impact of Quantification
Frege's New Foundation for Mathematics
The Invention of Digital Computing
Faith and the Limits of Logic: The Last Unanswered Question
Abelard's Rise to Power
Abelard's Attack on Faith Without Reason
Are Faith and Reason Compatible?
The Foundations of Rational Belief
Rationality After the Wars of Religion
The Vigilance of Reason
Appendix: Further Fallacies
Ad Hominem Argument ("To the Person")
Begging the Question
Big Lie
Cause and Effect (Confusions of)
Circular Definition
Circular Explanation
Composition
Continuum (Denying Differences in)
Division
Emotional Appeal
Equivocation
Evils and Remedies (Confusing Them)
False Analogy
False Antithesis
False Authority
False Dichotomy (or False Dilemma)
Formal Fallacy
Generalizing (Errors of)
Innuendo
Irrelevant Conclusion (or Ignoratio Elenchi, "Ignorance of Proof")
Is and Ought (Confusing Them)
Loaded Question
Negative Proof
Pretentious Diction
Sham Insight
Straw Man
Suppressed Evidence (or Ignored Evidence)
Vague Metaphor
Wrapping Oneself in the Flag
Notes
Bibliography
Index
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