Geochemistry Pathways and Processes

ISBN-10: 0231124406
ISBN-13: 9780231124409
Edition: 2nd 2003
List price: $100.00
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Description: Written expressly for undergraduate and graduate geologists, this book focuses on how geochemical principles can be used to solve practical problems. The attention to problem-solving reflects the authors'belief that showing how theory is useful in  More...

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Book details

List price: $100.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Publication date: 11/19/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 432
Size: 8.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

Written expressly for undergraduate and graduate geologists, this book focuses on how geochemical principles can be used to solve practical problems. The attention to problem-solving reflects the authors'belief that showing how theory is useful in solving real-life problems is vital for learning. The book gives students a thorough grasp of the basic principles of the subject, balancing the traditional equilibrium perspective and the kinetic viewpoint. The first half of the book considers processes in which temperature and pressure are nearly constant. After introductions to the laws of thermodynamics, to fundamental equations for flow and diffusion, and to solution chemistry, these principles are used to investigate diagenesis, weathering, and natural waters. The second half of the book applies thermodynamics and kinetics to systems undergoing changes in temperature and pressure during magmatism and metamorphism. This revised edition incorporates new geochemical discoveries as examples of processes and pathways, with new chapters on mineral structure and bonding and on organic matter and biomarkers. Each chapter has worked problems, and the authors assume that the student has had a year of college-level chemistry and a year of calculus. Praise for the first edition "A truly modern geochemistry book.... Very well written and quite enjoyable to read.... An excellent basic text for graduate level instruction in geochemistry." -- Journal of Geological Education "An up-to-date, broadly conceived introduction to geochemistry.... Given the recent flowering of geochemistry as an interdisciplinary science, and given the extent to which it now draws upon the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics to understand earth and planetary processes, this timely and rigorous [book] is welcome indeed." -- Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

Harry Y. McSween, Jr., is a former chair of the department of geological sciences and Distinguished Professor of Science at the University of Tennessee.Steven M. Richardson is vice president for academic affairs at Winona State University in Minnesota.Maria E. Uhle is Jones Assistant Professor of Organic Geochemistry at the University of Tennessee.

Preface to the Second Edition
Introducing Concepts in Geochemical Systems
Overview
What Is Geochemistry?
Historical Overview
Beginning Your Study of Geochemistry
Geochemical Variables
Geochemical Systems
Thermodynamics and Kinetics
An Example: Comparing Thermodynamic and Kinetic Approaches
Notes on Problem Solving
How Elements Behave
Overview
Elements, Atoms, and the Structure of Matter
Elements and the Periodic Table
The Atomic Nucleus and Isotopes
The Basis for Chemical Bonds: The Electron Cloud
Size, Charge, and Stability
Elemental Associations
Bonding
Perspectives on Bonding
Structural Implications of Bonding
Retrospective on Bonding
A First Look at Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Overview
Temperature and Equations of State
Work
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy and Disorder
Reprise: The Internal Energy Function Made Useful
Auxiliary Functions of State
Enthalpy
The Helmholtz Function
Gibbs Free Energy
Cleaning Up the Act: Conventions for E, H, F, G, and S
Composition as a Variable
Components
Changes in E, H, F, and G Due to Composition
Conditions for Heterogeneous Equilibrium
The Gibbs-Duhem Equation
How to Handle Solutions
Overview
What Is a Solution?
Crystalline Solid Solutions
Amorphous Solid Solutions
Melt Solutions
Electrolyte Solutions
Gas Mixtures
Solutions That Behave Ideally
Solutions That Behave Nonideally
Activity in Electrolyte Solutions
The Mean Salt Method
The Debye-Huckel Method
Solubility
The Ionic Strength Effect
The Common Ion Effect
Complex Species
Diagenesis: A Study in Kinetics
Overview
What Is Diagenesis?
Kinetic Factors in Diagenesis
Diffusion
Advection
Kinetics of Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation
The Diagenetic Equation
Organic Matter and Biomarkers: A Different Perspective
Overview
Organic Matter in the Global Carbon Cycle
Organic Matter Production and Cycling in the Oceans
Fate of Primary Production: Degradation and Diagenesis
Factors Controlling Accumulation and Preservation
Preservation by Sorption
Degradation in Oxic Environments
Diagenetic Alteration
Chemical Composition of Biologic Precursors
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Lignin
Biomarkers
Application of Biomarkers to Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions
Alkenone Temperature Records
Amino Acid Racemization
Chemical Weathering: Dissolution and Redox Processes
Overview
Fundamental Solubility Equilibria
Silica Solubility
Solubility of Magnesian Silicates
Solubility of Gibbsite
Solubility of Aluminosilicate Minerals
Rivers as Weathering Indicators
Agents of Weathering
Carbon Dioxide
Organic Acids
Oxidation-Reduction Processes
Thermodynamic Conventions for Redox Systems
E[subscript h]-pH Diagrams
Redox Systems Containing Carbon Dioxide
Activity-Activity Relationships: The Broader View
The Oceans and Atmosphere as a Geochemical System
Overview
Composition of the Oceans
A Classification of Dissolved Constituents
Chemical Variations with Depth
Composition of the Atmosphere
Carbonate and the Great Marine Balancing Act
Some First Principles
Calcium Carbonate Solubility
Chemical Modeling of Seawater: A Summary
Global Mass Balance and Steady State in the Oceans
Examining the Steady State
How Does the Steady State Evolve?
Box Models
Continuum Models
A Summary of Ocean-Atmosphere Models
Gradual Change: The History of Seawater and Air
Early Outgassing and the Primitive Atmosphere
The Rise of Oxygen
Temperature and Pressure Changes: Thermodynamics Again
Overview
What Does Equilibrium Really Mean?
Determining When a System Is in Equilibrium
The Phase Rule
Open versus Closed Systems
Changing Temperature and Pressure
Temperature Changes and Heat Capacity
Pressure Changes and Compressibility
Temperature and Pressure Changes Combined
A Graphical Look at Changing Conditions: The Clapeyron Equation
Reactions Involving Fluids
Raoult's and Henry's Laws: Mixing of Several Components
Standard States and Activity Coefficients
Solution Models: Activities of Complex Mixtures
Thermobarometry: Applying What We Have Learned
Picturing Equilibria: Phase Diagrams
Overview
G-X[subscript 2] Diagrams
Derivation of T-X[subscript 2] and P-X[subscript 2] Diagrams
T-X[subscript 2] Diagrams for Real Geochemical Systems
Simple Crystallization in a Binary System: CaMgSi[subscript 2]O[subscript 6]-CaAl[subscript 2]Si[subscript 2]O[subscript 8]
Formation of a Chemical Compound in a Binary System: KAlSi[subscript 2]O[subscript 6]-SiO[subscript 2]
Solid Solution in a Binary System: NaAlSi[subscript 3]O[subscript 8]-CaAl[subscript 2]Si[subscript 2]O[subscript 8]
Unmixing in a Binary System: NaAlSi[subscript 3]O[subscript 8]-KAlSi[subscript 3]O[subscript 8]
Thermodynamic Calculation of Phase Diagrams
Binary Phase Diagrams Involving Fluids
P-T Diagrams
Systems with Three Components
Kinetics and Crystallization
Overview
Effect of Temperature on Kinetic Processes
Diffusion
Nucleation
Nucleation in Melts
Nucleation in Solids
Growth
Interface-Controlled Growth
Diffusion-Controlled Growth
Some Applications of Kinetics
Aragonite [right arrow over left arrow] Calcite: Growth as the Rate-Limiting Step
Iron Meteorites: Diffusion as the Rate-Limiting Step
Bypassing Theory: Controlled Cooling Rate Experiments
Bypassing Theory Again: Crystal Size Distributions
The Solid Earth as a Geochemical System
Overview
Reservoirs in the Solid Earth
Composition of the Crust
Composition of the Mantle
Composition of the Core
Fluxes in the Solid Earth
Cycling between Crust and Mantle
Heat Exchange between Mantle and Core
Fluids and the Irreversible Formation of Continental Crust
Melting in the Mantle
Thermodynamic Effects of Melting
Types of Melting Behavior
Causes of Melting
Differentiation in Melt-Crystal Systems
Fractional Crystallization
Chemical Variation Diagrams
Liquid Immiscibility
The Behavior of Trace Elements
Trace Element Fractionation during Melting and Crystallization
Compatible and Incompatible Elements
Volatile Elements
Crust and Mantle Fluid Compositions
Mantle and Crust Reservoirs for Fluids
Cycling of Fluids between Crust and Mantle
Using Stable Isotopes
Overview
Historical Perspective
What Makes Stable Isotopes Useful?
Mass Fractionation and Bond Strength
Geologic Interpretations Based on Isotopic Fractionation
Thermometry
Isotopic Evolution of the Oceans
Fractionation in the Hydrologic Cycle
Fractionation in Geothermal and Hydrothermal Systems
Fractionation in Sedimentary Basins
Fractionation among Biogenic Compounds
Isotopic Fractionation around Marine Oil and Gas Seeps
Using Radioactive Isotopes
Overview
Principles of Radioactivity
Nuclide Stability
Decay Mechanisms
Rate of Radioactive Decay
Decay Series and Secular Equilibrium
Geochronology
Potassium-Argon System
Rubidium-Strontium System
Samarium-Neodymium System
Uranium-Thorium-Lead System
Extinct Radionuclides
Fission Tracks
Geochemical Applications of Induced Radioactivity
Neutron Activation Analysis
[superscript 40]Argon-[superscript 39]Argon Geochronology
Cosmic-Ray Exposure
Radionuclides as Tracers of Geochemical Processes
Heterogeneity of the Earth's Mantle
Magmatic Assimilation
Subduction of Sediments
Isotopic Composition of the Oceans
Degassing of the Earth's Interior to Form the Atmosphere
Stretching Our Horizons: Cosmochemistry
Overview
Why Study Cosmochemistry?
Origin and Abundance of the Elements
Nucleosynthesis in Stars
Cosmic Abundance Patterns
Chondrites as Sources of Cosmochemical Data
Cosmochemical Behavior of Elements
Controls on Cosmochemical Behavior
Chemical Fractionations Observed in Chondrites
Condensation of the Elements
How Equilibrium Condensation Works
The Condensation Sequence
Evidence for Condensation in Chondrites
Infusion of Matter from Outside the Solar System
Isotopic Diversity in Meteorites
A Supernova Trigger?
The Discovery of Stardust in Chondrites
The Most Volatile Materials: Organic Compounds and Ices
Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds
Ices--The Only Thing Left
A Time Scale for Creation
Estimating the Bulk Compositions of Planets
Some Constraints on Cosmochemical Models
The Equilibrium Condensation Model
The Heterogeneous Accretion Model
The Chondrite Mixing Model
Planetary Models: Cores and Mantles
Mathematical Methods
Finding and Evaluating Geochemical Data
Numerical Values of Geochemical Interest
Glossary
Index

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