Critical Thinking Skills Developing Effective Analysis and Argument

ISBN-10: 0230285295
ISBN-13: 9780230285293
Edition: 2nd 2011 (Revised)
Authors: Stella Cottrell
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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Publication date: 5/11/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 296
Size: 7.75" wide x 10.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.100
Language: English

Andy Rixon has worked as a social worker with children and families and in staff training and development with a particular focus on post-qualifying education for social workers. He has been at the Open University since 2006 contributing chapters to several books including Critical practice with children and young people (2010) and co-edited Changing Children's services: working and learning together (2014).Stella Cottrell is Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Learning, Teaching and Student Engagement at the University of East London, UK. This position sees a return to the University of East London for Stella where she previously spent ten years working in educational development. Prior to her current position, Stella was Director for Lifelong Learning at the University of Leeds, UK.She has an international reputation for teaching and learning with her publications for staff and students being used by universities and colleges around the world. First published in 1999, The Study Skills Handbook is now in its 4th edition and has sold more than � million copies worldwide. Stella has authored a number of other bestselling study skills guides as part of the Palgrave Study Skills series including Critical Thinking Skills and The Palgrave Student Planner . Palgrave's interactive e-learning study skills resource, skills4studycampus, is also based on her work.

Introduction
Glossary
Acknowledgements
What is critical thinking?
Introduction
What is critical thinking?
Reasoning
Why develop critical thinking skills?
Underlying skills and attitudes
Self-awareness for accurate judgement
Personal strategies for critical thinking
Critical thinking in academic contexts
Barriers to critical thinking
Critical thinking: Knowledge, skills and attitudes
Priorities: Developing critical thinking abilities
Summary
How well do you think? Develop your thinking skills
Introduction
Assess your thinking skills
Scoring sheet
Focusing attention
Focusing attention: Identifying difference
Focusing attention: Recognising sequence
Categorising
Activity: Categorising text
Close reading
Information about the sources
Answers to activities in Chapter 2
What's their point? Identifying arguments
Introduction
The author's position
Activity: Capturing the author's position
Argument: Persuasion through reasons
Identifying the argument
Activity: Identifying simple arguments
Activity: Reasons and conclusions
Hunting out the conclusion
Summary of features
Summary
Information about the sources
Answers to activities in Chapter 3
Is it an argument? Argument and non-argument
Introduction
Argument and disagreement
Activity: Argument and disagreement
Non-arguments: Description
Non-arguments: Explanations and summaries
Activity: What type of message?
Distinguishing argument from other material
Activity: Selecting out the argument
Summary
Information about the sources
Answers to activities in Chapter 4
How well do they say it? Clarity, consistency and structure
Introduction
How clear is the author's position?
Internal consistency
Activity: Internal consistency
Logical consistency
Activity: Logical consistency
Independent reasons and joint reasons
Activity: Independent reasons and joint reasons
Intermediate conclusions
Intermediate conclusions used as reasons
Activity: Intermediate conclusions
Summative and logical conclusions
Activity: Summative and logical conclusions
Logical order
Activity: Logical order
Summary
Information about the sources
Answers to activities in Chapter 5
Reading between the lines: Recognising underlying assumptions and implicit arguments
Introduction
Assumptions
Activity: Identify the underlying assumptions
Identifying hidden assumptions
Implicit assumptions used as reasons
Activity: Implicit assumptions used as reasons
False premises
Activity: False premises
Implicit arguments
Activities: Implicit arguments
Denoted and connoted meanings
Activities: Associations and stereotypes
Activity: Denoted and connoted meanings
Summary
Information about the sources
Answers to activities in Chapter 6
Does it add up? Identifying flaws in the argument
Introduction
Assuming a causal link
Correlations and false correlations
Activity: Identify the nature of the link
Not meeting the necessary conditions
Not meeting sufficient conditions
Activity: Necessary and sufficient conditions
False analogies
Activity: False analogies
Deflection, complicity and exclusion
Other types of flawed argument
Unwarranted leaps and castle of cards
Emotive language; Attacking the person
More flaws
Misrepresentation and trivialisation
Tautology; Two wrongs don't make a right
Summary
Information on the sources
Answers to activities in Chapter 7
Where's the proof? Finding and evaluating sources of evidence
Introduction
Primary and secondary source materials
Searching for evidence
Literature searches
Reputable sources
Authenticity and validity
Currency and reliability
Selecting the best evidence
Relevant and irrelevant evidence
Activity: Relevant and irrelevant evidence
Representative samples
Activity: Representative samples
Certainty and probability
Sample sizes and statistical significance
Over-generalisation
Controlling for variables
Facts and opinions
Eye-witness testimony
Triangulation
Evaluating a body of evidence
Summary
Information on the sources
Answers to activities in Chapter 8
Critical reading and note-making: Critical selection, interpretation and noting of source material
Introduction
Preparing for critical reading
Identifying the theoretical perspective
The relation of theory to argument
Categorising and selecting
Accurate interpretation when reading
Making notes to support critical reading
Reading and noting for a purpose
Concise critical notes: Analysing argument
Concise critical notes: Books
Concise critical notes: Articles and papers
Critical selection when note-making
Activity: Critical selection
Commentary on critical selection activity
Note your source of information
Summary
Information on the sources
Answers to activities in Chapter 9
Critical, analytical writing: Critical thinking when writing
Introduction
Characteristics of critical, analytical writing
Setting the scene for the reader
Activity: Setting the scene for the reader
Writing up the literature search
Words used to introduce the line of reasoning
Signposting alternative points of view
Words used to signpost conclusions
Words and phrases used to structure the line of reasoning
Drawing tentative conclusions
Activity: Writing conclusions
Critical analysis for essays: essay titles
Academic keywords used in titles
Critical analysis for essays: reading
Critical analytical essays: introductions
Structured argument: the body of the essay
Essays: Bringing the argument together
Citing and referencing your sources
What do I include in a reference?
Summary
Information on the sources
Answers to activities in Chapter 10
Where's the analysis? Evaluating critical writing
Introduction
Checklist for evaluating Essay 1
Evaluate Essay 1
Evaluation of Essay 1
Commentary for Essay 1
Checklist for evaluating Essay 2
Evaluate Essay 2
Evaluation of Essay 2
Commentary on Essay 2
Evaluating your writing for critical thinking
Summary
Critical reflection
Introduction
What is critical reflection?
Why engage in critical reflection?
Decide your approach and purpose
Approach: outcome, focus, model, method
Approach: method and audience
Approach: relating experience and theory
Decide your approach: summary
Resource: Outline approach to reflection
Reflection phases 1 and 2
Examples of phase 1 reflection
Examples of phase 2 reflection
Models of reflection
Deciding on your model for reflection
The Core Model for critical reflection
Applying reflection to professional practice
Reflection and professional judgement
Good and bad critical reflection
Presenting your reflection to others
Summary
Information about the sources
Texts for Activities in Chapters 8, 9 and 11
Texts for activities in Chapters 8, 9 and 11
Practice activities on longer texts
Features of an argument
Features of an argument
Finding flaws in the argument
Finding flaws in the argument
Features of an argument
Features of an argument
Finding flaws in the argument
Finding flaws in the argument
Appendix: Selected search engines and databases for on-line literature searches
Bibliography
Index

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